Category Archives: Federal Government

TPE and Prepay Audits: Speak Softly, But Carry a Big Stick

Audits have now resumed to 100% capacity – or even 150% capacity. All audits that were suspended during COVID are reinstated. As you all know, RAC and MAC audits were reinstated back in August. CMS announced that Targeted Probe and Educate (TPE) audits would resume on Sept. 1, 2021. Unlike RAC audits, the stated goal of TPE audits is to help providers reduce claim denials and appeals with one-on-one education, focused on the documentation and coding of the services they provide. However, do not let the stated mission fool you. Failing a TPE audit can result in onerous actions such as 100 percent prepay review, extrapolation, referral to a RAC, or other action, a carefully crafted response to a TPE audit is critical. TPEs can be prepay or post-pay.

Speaking of prepayments, these bad babies are back in full swing. CareSource is one of the companies contracted with CMS to conduct prepayment reviews and urgent care centers seem to be a target. Prepayment review is technically and legally not a penalty; therefore being placed on prepayment review is not appealable. But do not believe these legalities – prepay is Draconian in nature and puts many providers out of business, especially if they fail to seek legal counsel immediately and believe that they will pass without any problem. When it comes to prepay, believing that everything will be ok, is a death trap. Instead get a big stick.

            42 CFR §447.45 requires 90% of clean claims to be paid to a provider within 30 days of receipt. 99% must be paid within 90 days. The same regulations mandate the agency to conduct prepayment review of claims to ensure that the claims are not duplicative, the consumer is eligible for Medicare, or that the number of visits and services delivered are logically consistent with the beneficiary’s characteristics and circumstances, such as type of illness, age, sex, and service location. This standard prepayment review is dissimilar from a true prepayment review.

            Chapter 3 of the Medicare Program Integrity Manual lays out the rules for a prepayment review audit. The Manual states that MACs shall deal with serious problems using the most substantial administrative actions available, such as 100 percent prepayment review of claims. Minor or isolated inappropriate billing shall be remediated through provider notification or feedback with reevaluation after notification. The new prepay review rules comments closed 9/13/21, so it will take effect soon.

            If a 100% prepay is considered the most substantial administrative action, then why is it not considered an appealable sanction? I have, however, been successful in obtaining an injunction enjoining the suspension of payments without appealing being placed on prepay.

When requesting documentation for prepayment review, the MACs and UPICs shall notify providers when they expect documentation to be received. It is normally 30-days. The Manual does not allow for time extensions to providers who need more time to comply with the request. Reviewers shall deny claims when the requested documentation to support payment is not received by the expected timeframe. Any audit, but especially prepay audits can lead to termination under 42 CFR §424.535. You may choose to speak softly, but always carry a big stick.

Instead of Orange, Medicare Advantage Audits Are the New Black

In case you didn’t know, instead of orange, Medicare Advantage is the new black. Since MA plans are paid more for sicker patients, there are huge incentives to fabricate co-morbidities that may or may not exist.

Medicare Advantage will be the next most audited arena. Home health, BH, and the two-midnight rule had held the gold medal for highest number of audits, but MA will soon prevail.

As an example, last week- a New York health insurance plan for seniors, along with amedical analytics company the insurer is affiliated with, was accused by the Justice Department of committing health care fraud to the tune of tens of millions of dollars. The dollar amounts are exceedingly high, which also attracts auditors, especially the auditors who are paid on contingency fee, which is almost all the auditors.

CMS pays Medicare Advantage plans using a complex formula called a “risk score,” which is intended to render higher rates for sicker patients and less for those in good health. The data mining company combed electronic medical records to identify missed diagnoses — pocketing up to 20% of new revenue it generated for the health plan. But the Department of Justice alleges that DxID’s reviews triggered “tens of millions” of dollars in overcharges when those missing diagnoses were filled in with exaggerations of how sick patients were or with charges for medical conditions the patients did not have. “All problems are boring until they’re your own.” – Red

MA plans have grown to now cover more than 40% of all Medicare beneficiaries, so too has fraud and abuse. A 2020 OIG report found that MA paid $2.6 billion a year for diagnoses unrelated to any clinical services.

Diagnoses fraud is the main issue that auditors are focusing on. Juxtapose the other alphabet soup auditors – MACs, SMRCs, UPICs, ZPICs, MCOs, TPEs, RACs – they concentrate on documentation nitpicking. I had a client accused of FWA for using purple ink. “Yeah I said stupid twice, only to emphasize how stupid that is!” – Pennsatucky. Other examples include purported failing of writing the times “in or out” when the CPT code definition includes the amount of time.

Audits will be ramping up, especially since HHS has reduced the Medicare appeals backlog at the Administrative Judge Level by 79 percent, which puts the department on track to clear the backlog by the end of the 2022 fiscal year.

 As of June 30, 2021, the end of the third quarter of FY 2021, HHS had 86,063 pending appeals remaining at OMHA, according to the latest status report, acquired by the American Hospital Association. The department started with 426,594 appeals. This is progress!!

Medicare Provider Appeals: “Get Thee to an ALJ!”

Get thee to a nunnery!” screamed Hamlet to Ophelia in frustration of his mother marrying Claudius so quickly after his father’s death. Similarly any provider who has undergone a Medicare appeal understands the frustration of getting the appeal to the administrative law judge level (the 3rd level). It takes years to do so, and it is the imperative step instead of the lower level rubber stamps. “Get thee to an ALJ!”

Per regulation, once you appeal an alleged Medicare overpayment, no recoupment of the disputed funds occurs until after you receive the second level review, which is usually the QIC upholding the overpayment. It is no secret that the Medicare provider appeals’ level one and two are basically an automatic approval process of the decision to recoup. “Something is rotten in the state of Denmark.” Hence, the importance of the ALJ level.

There are 5 levels of Medicare appeals available to providers:

  • Redetermination
  • Reconsideration
  • Administrative Law Judge (ALJ)
  • Departmental Appeals Board (DAB) Review
  • Federal Court (Judicial) Review

The third level is the level in which you present your case to an ALJ, who is an impartial independent tribunal. Unfortunately, right now, it takes about five years between levels two and three, although with CMS hiring 70 new ALJs, the Office of Medicare Hearings and Appeals (OMHA) is optimistic that the backlog will quickly dissipate. Last week, I attended an ALJ hearing for a client based on an audit conducted in 2016. Five years later, we finally presented to the ALJ. When the ALJ was presented with our evidence which clearly demonstrated that the provider should not pay anything, he actually said, “I’m shocked this issue got this far.” As in, this should have been reversed before this level. “O what a noble mind is here o’erthrown!”

In many cases, a premature recoupment of funds in dispute will financially destroy the health care provider, which should not be the purpose of any overpayment nor the consequence of any fraud, waste, and abuse program. We are talking about documentation nit-picking. Not fraud. Such as services notes signed late, according to best practices. Or quibbles about medical necessity or the definition of in patient and the two-midnight rule.

You have all probably read my blogs about the Family Rehab case that came out in TX in 2019. A Court found that Family Rehab, a health care facility, which faced a $7 million alleged overpayment required an injunction. The Judge Ordered that CMS be enjoined from prematurely recouping Medicare reimbursements from Family Rehab. Now, be mindful, the Judge did not enjoin CMS the first time Family Rehab requested an injunction; Superior Court initially dismissed the case for lack of jurisdiction based on failure to exhaust its administrative remedies. But instead of giving up, which is what most providers would do when faced with a dismissed injunction request due to emotional turmoil and finances. “To be, or not to be: that is the question:” Instead, Family Rehab appealed the dismissal to the Court of Appeals and won. The 5th Circuit held that Superior Court does have jurisdiction to hear a collateral challenge on both procedural due process grounds as well as an ultra vires action. On remand, Family Rehab successfully obtained a permanent injunction.

The clinical issues supposedly in support of the overpayment are silly. In Family Rehab’s case, the ZPIC claims homebound criteria was not met when it is clearly met by a reasonable review of the documents.

Homebound is defined as:

Criteria One:

The patient must either:

  • Because of illness or injury, need the aid of supportive devices such as crutches, canes, wheelchairs, and walkers; the use of special transportation; or the assistance of another person in order to leave their place of residence

OR

  • Have a condition such that leaving his or her home is medically contraindicated.

If the patient meets one of the Criteria One conditions, then the patient must ALSO meet two additional requirements in Criteria Two below:

Criteria Two:

  • There must exist a normal inability to leave home;

AND

  • Leaving home must require a considerable and taxing effort.

In one of the claims that the ZPIC found no homebound status, the consumer was legally blind and in a wheelchair! The injunction hinged on the Court’s finding that because the ALJ stage is critical in decreasing the risk of erroneous deprivation, an injunction was necessary. I look forward to the ALJ hearing. “The rest is silence.”

Medicare Consumers May Be Great House-Flippers: Keep Your Mind Wise

I have a guest blogger today – what an honor! Teresa Greenhill is the co-creator of MentalHealthforSeniors.com, which is dedicated to providing seniors with information on physical and mental fitness. Being a senior herself, Teresa, with some help from her granddaughter, manages the website as a way to keep her busy and help other seniors be active and happy in their golden years.

Teresa’s blog today is about Medicare consumers creating a “senior” business…make money as a senior! Think it can’t be done?? Read Teresa’s blog below.

Breaking Into the House-Flipping Business: A Guide for Seniors

House-flipping can be a lucrative and rewarding venture for seniors. Maybe you are a retiree looking for a second career. Maybe you’ve always wanted to get competitive in the world of real estate. Or maybe you’re just trying to stay occupied and active while bringing in a little extra cash. Whatever the case, if you’re considering trying your hand at house-flipping, here are some of the basics you should know.

Seniors tend to thrive in the field of real estate.

Success in real estate can hinge very much on how well you deal with people. And this is something that many seniors have become adept at, over the years. You’ve probably had your share of managing difficult personalities. You can often anticipate issues before they arise. And most importantly, your own life experience sets you up to empathize with what others may be going through. Individuals who are selling or buying a home will appreciate the chance to deal with someone who is competent and calm, and who understands their worries. The bonus for seniors is that the work is relatively undemanding and allows you to set your own schedule.

You don’t need to be a real estate agent.

You don’t need to train to be an agent, or be certified as an agent, in order to get into flipping houses. That doesn’t mean there aren’t benefits to getting your real estate agent’s license, however. As a licensed agent, you will save money on commissions. You will also have better and earlier access to real estate listings. And being educated in the ins and outs of home buying and selling will make the entire process run more smoothly for you.

You will need to start with a certain amount of funding.

House-flipping is not one of those fields you can leap into without preparation, and this includes financial preparation. Before you decide that house-flipping is right for you, check to see whether you are financially ready to make a good start. The biggest expense you will face is the acquisition cost, which will vary depending on location, the size of the property, and its condition. You will also have to deal with renovation expenses and property taxes. Other costs involved in house-flipping include utilities, inspections, permits, and closing costs. So yes, this is a field that is easier to break into if you have plenty of cash on hand. But seniors who don’t have much expendable income still may be able to get a bank or home equity loan to start off.

Should you buy fixer-uppers?

When going into house flipping, the idea is that you will sell a house for more than you spent on it – so, yes, some renovation is a given. But there’s a limit to how much renovation and repair is a good idea. Even a home that looks decent at first glance could have a host of problems including expensive issues pertaining to the foundation, the roof, or the structure itself. Look out for mold, asbestos, termite damage, and wiring problems. A good choice is a home that will benefit immensely from less expensive aesthetic updates such as a good paint job, new cabinets, or improved landscaping. Of course, much depends on how skilled you are at home renovations and repairs, yourself.

Will you have to hire employees?

If you plan on making this a business, you may want to bring on more permanent hires. Or you may prefer simply to deal with contractors. Either way, make sure you hire individuals or companies that have good reviews and are well regarded. Don’t forget that you will need to manage payroll, as soon as you start hiring others. So make sure anyone you bring on fills out the appropriate paperwork, and have an organized system for paying them promptly and correctly.

If you feel you have what it takes to succeed at – and enjoy – house-flipping, this may be the beginning of an exciting new phase in your life. Just be sure you are well informed, and sufficiently financially equipped to get your start safely. If you are a senior interested in real estate and also have legal questions pertaining to Medicaid or Medicare in the Raleigh area, contact Knicole C. Emanuel of Medicaid Law NC.

Image via Pixabay

A Decline in Home Health and Long Term Care Providers

Hello and Happy birthday Medicare and Medicaid. You are now 56 years old. Medicaid was never supposed to be long-lasting or a primary insurance that it has become. Over 81 million citizens rely on Medicaid. President Lyndon Johnson signed both landmark social programs into law on July 30, 1965.

I have two newsflashes to discuss today. (1) Nursing homes will be targeted by audits because few surveys occurred during COVID, according to a newly published OIG Report; and (2) long-term care facilities, in general, are decreasing in number while the need escalates.

First, the OIG, Addendum to OEI-01-20-00430, published July 2021, “States’ Backlogs of Standard Surveys of Nursing Homes Grew Substantially During the COVID-19 Pandemic,” which is an audit of a mass number of nursing homes across the country.

Nationally, 71 percent of nursing homes (10,913 of 15,295) had gone at least 16 months without a standard survey as of May 31, 2021. By State, the backlogs for standard surveys ranged from 22 percent to 96 percent of nursing homes. Expect a surge of standard audits.

Insert chart.

Second, enrollment in fee-for-service (FFS) Medicare and Medicaid has skyrocketed in recent years, especially due to COVID and longer life-expectancies. This equates to more consumers. It means a need for more providers willing to accept the low reimbursement rates offered by Medicare and Medicaid. More providers plus more consumers equals more RAC and MAC audits. Medicare remains the nation’s largest single purchaser of health care, with home health care services accounting for a decent chunk of spending. Of the $3.2 trillion spent on personal health care in 2019, Medicare accounted for 23% — or $743 billion — of that total.

There were 11,456 home health agencies operating in 2020. That total is down slightly compared to the 11,571 agencies operating in 2019. The number of home health agencies has actually been declining since 2013. Before that, the industry had experienced several years of substantial growth in terms of new agencies opening. The decline in agencies has been most concentrated in Texas and Florida. The number of skilled nursing facilities (SNFs) is also decreasing, though not quite as fast.

My humble opinion? The government needs to be more aware of how aggressive Medicare and Medicaid auditors are. How overzealous. Congress needs to pass legislation to protect the providers who accept Medicare and Medicaid. Like the military, we should be saying, “thank you for your service.”

“Reverse RAC Audits”: Increase Revenue by Protecting Your Consumers

Today I want to talk about two ways to increase revenue merely by ensuring that your patients’ rights are met. We talk about providers being audited for their claims being regulatory compliant, but how about self-audits to increase your revenue? I like these kind of audits! I am calling these audits “Reverse RAC audits”. Let’s bring money in instead of reimbursements recouped.

You can protect yourself as a provider and increase revenue by remembering and litigating on behalf of your consumers’ rights. Plus, your patients will be eternally grateful for your advocacy. It is a win/win. The following are two, distinct ways to increase revenue and protect your consumers’ rights:

  1. Ensuring freedom of choice of provider; and
  2. Appealing denials on behalf of your consumers.

Freedom of choice of provider.

In a federal case in Indiana, we won an injunction based on the patients’ rights to access to care.

42 CFR § 431.51 – Free choice of providers states that “(b) State plan requirements. A State plan must provide as follows…:

(1)  A beneficiary may obtain Medicaid services from any institution, agency, pharmacy, person, or organization that is –

(i) Qualified to furnish the services; and

(ii) Willing to furnish them to that particular beneficiary.

In Bader v. Wernert, MD, we successfully obtained an injunction enjoining the State of Indiana from terminating a health care facility. We sued on behalf of a geneticist – Dr. Bader – whose facility’s contract was terminated from the Medicaid program for cause. We sued Dr. Wernert in his official capacity as Secretary of the Indiana Family and Social Services Administration. Through litigation, we saved the facility’s Medicaid contract from being terminated based on the rights of the consumers. The consumers’ rights can come to the aid of the provider.

Keep in mind that some States’ Waivers for Medicaid include exceptions and limitations to the qualified and willing provider standard. There are also limits to waiving the freedom of choice of provider, as well.

Appealing consumers’ denials.

This is kind of a reverse RAC Audit. This is an easy way to increase revenue.

Under 42 CFR § 405.910 – Appointed representatives, a provider of services may appeal on behalf of the consumers. If you appeal on behalf of your consumers, the obvious benefit is that you could get reimbursed for the services rendered that were denied. You cannot charge a fee for the service; however, so please keep this in mind.

One of my clients currently has hired my team appealing all denials that are still viable under the statute of limitations. There are literally hundreds of denials.

Over the past few years, they had hundreds of consumers’ coverage get denied for one reason or the other. Allegedly not medically necessary or provider’s trainings weren’t conveyed to the auditors. In other words, most of the denials are egregiously wrong. Others are closer to call. Regardless these funds were all a huge lump of accounts’ receivables that was weighing down the accounting books.

Now, with the help of my team, little by little, claim by claim, we are chipping away at that accounts’ receivables. The receivables are decreasing just by appealing the consumers’ denials.

RAC Audit Update: Renewed Focus on the Two-Midnight Rule

In RAC news, on June 1, 2021, Cotiviti acquired HMS RAC region 4. Don’t be surprised if you see Cotiviti’s logo on RAC audits where you would have seen HMS. This change will have no impact in the day-to-day contract administration and audit timelines under CMS’ guidance. You will continue to follow the guidance in the alleged, improper payment notification letter for submission of medical documentation and discussion period request. In March 2021, CMS awarded Performant an 8.5 year contract to serve as the Region 1 RAC. 

There really cannot be any deviations regardless the name of the RAC Auditor because this area is so regulated. Providers always have appeal rights regardless Medicare/caid RAC audits. Or any other type of audit. Medicaid RAC provider appeals are found in 42 CFR 455.512. Whereas Medicare provider redeterminations and the 5 levels of appeal are found in 42 CFR Subpart I. The reason that RAC audits are spoken about so often is that the Code of Federal Regulations applies different rules for RAC audits versus MAC, TPE, UPIC, or other audits. The biggest difference is that RAC auditors are limited to a 3 year look back period according to 42 CFR 455.508. Other auditors do not have that same limitation and can look back for longer periods of time. Of course, whenever “credible allegations of fraud” is involved, the lookback period can be for 10 years.

The federal regulations also allow States to request exceptions from the Medicaid RAC program. CMS mandates every State to participate in the RAC program. But there is a federal reg §455.516 that allows exceptions. To my knowledge, no State has requested exceptions out of the RAC Audit program.

RAC auditors have announced a renewed focus on the two-midnight rule for hospitals. Again. This may seem like a rerun and it is. You recall around 2012, RACs began noticing high rates of error with respect to patient status in certain short-stay Medicare claims submitted for inpatient hospital services. CMS and the RACs indicated the inpatient care setting was medically unnecessary, and the claims should have been billed as outpatient instead. Remember, for stays under 2 midnights, inpatient status may be used in rare and unusual exceptions and may be payable under Medicare Part A on a case-by-case basis.

Post-COVID (ish) RAC Audits – Temporary Restrictions

2020 was an odd year for recovery audit contractor (“RAC”) and Medicare Administrative Contractors (“MAC”) audits. Well, it was an odd year for everyone. After trying five virtual trials, each one with up to 23 witnesses, it seems that, slowly but surely, we are getting back to normalcy. A tell-tale sign of fresh normalcy is an in-person defense of health care regulatory audits. I am defending a RAC audit of pediatric facility in Georgia in a couple weeks and the clerk of court said – “The hearing is in person.” Well, that’s new. Even when we specifically requested a virtual trial, we were denied with the explanation that GA is open now. The virtual trials are cheaper and more convenient; clients don’t have to pay for hotels and airlines.

In-person hearings are back – at least in most states. We have similar players and new restrictions.

On March 16, 2021, CMS announced that it will temporarily restrict audits to March 1, 2020, and before. Medicare audits are not yet dipping its metaphoric toes into the shark infested waters of auditing claims with dates of service (“DOS”) March 1 – today. This leaves a year and half time period untouched. Once the temporary hold is lifted, audits of 2020 DOS will be abound. March 26, 2021, CMS awarded Performant Recovery, Inc., the incumbent, the new RAC Region 1 contract.

RAC’s review claims on a post-payment and/or pre-payment basis. (FYI – You would rather a post payment review rather than a pre – I promise).

The RACs were created to detect fraud, waste, and abuse (“FWA”) by reviewing medical records. Any health care provider – not matter how big or small –  are subject to audits at the whim of the government. CMS, RACs, MCOs, MACs, TPEs, UPICs, and every other auditing company can implement actions that will prevent future improper payments, as well. As we all know, RACs are paid on a contingency basis. Approximately, 13%. When the RACs were first created, the RACs were compensated based on accusations of overpayments, not the amounts that were truly owed after an independent tribunal. As any human could surmise, the contingency payment creates an overzealousness that can only be demonstrated by my favorite case in my 21 years – in New Mexico against Public Consulting Group (“PCG”). A behavioral health care (“BH”) provider was accused of over $12 million overpayment. After we presented before the administrative law judge (“ALJ”) in NM Administrative Court, the ALJ determined that we owed $896.35. The 99.23% reduction was because of the following:

  1. Faulty Extrapolation: NM HSD’s contractor PCG reviewed approximately 150 claims out of 15,000 claims between 2009 and 2013. Once the error rate was defined as high as 92%, the base error equaled $9,812.08; however the extrapolated amount equaled over $12 million. Our expert statistician rebutted the error rate being so high.  Once the extrapolation is thrown out, we are now dealing with much more reasonable amounts – only $9k
  • Attack the Clinical Denials: The underlying, alleged overpayment of $9,812.08 was based on 150 claims. We walked through the 150 claims that PCG claimed were denials and proved PCG wrong. Examples of their errors include denials based on lack of staff credentialing, when in reality, the auditor could not read the signature. Other denials were erroneously denied based the application of the wrong policy year.

The upshot is that we convinced the judge that PCG was wrong in almost every denial PCG made. In the end, the Judge found we owed $896.35, not $12 million. Little bit of a difference! We appealed.

The Grey Area Between Civil and Criminal Fraud

This segment is rated ‘F’ for fraud. It is not for the meek of heart. How many of you have read a newspaper or seen the news about Medicare and Medicaid provider fraudsters? There is a grey area between civil and criminal prosecutions of fraud. Some innocent providers get caught in the wide, fraud net because counsel doesn’t understand the idiosyncrasies of Medicare regulations.

Health care fraud GENERALLY exists as one of the following:

  1. Billing for services not rendered;
  2. Billing for a non-covered service as a covered service;
  3. Misrepresenting the DOS
  4. Misrepresenting location of service;
  5. Misrepresenting provider of service
  6. Waiving deductibles and/or co-payments
  7. Incorrect reporting of diagnoses or procedures;
  8. Overutilization of services;
  9. Kickbacks/referrals for money
  10. False or unnecessary issuance of prescription drugs

To err is human. Or so Alexander Pope says. I am here to attest that many of those accused providers are innocent and victims of unspecialized criminal attorneys.

One plastic surgeon knows this only too well. Quick anecdote:

Doctor was audited for removing lesions from the eye area and accused of billing for removing cancerous lesions even when the biopsies came back benign. Yet Medicare instructs physicians to NOT go back and change a CPT code after the fact. The physician is supposed to make an educated guess as to whether the lesion removed is benign or malignant. There are no crystal balls so he makes an educated determination.

Since plastic surgery is highly specialized and the physician is highly educated. Deference should be given to the physician regardless.

This plastic surgeon was accused of upcoding and billing for services not rendered. He performed biopsies around the eye of possible, cancerous lesions. Once removed, he would send the samples to lab. Meanwhile, before knowing whether the samples were cancerous, because he believed them to be cancerous, billed for removal of cancerous lesion to Medicare. Correct coding for skin procedures is not impossible. 

In a Local Coverage Determination (“LCD”), beginning 2008, Medicare instructed physicians to not go back and change codes depending on the pathology. “If a benign skin lesion excision was performed, report the applicable CPT code, even if final pathology demonstrates a malignant or carcinoma diagnosis for the lesion removed. The final pathology does not change the CPT code of the procedure performed.” See LCD: Removal of Benign Skin Lesions, 2008. This plastic surgeon relied on CMS’ Medicare regulations and policies, including the Medicare Provider Manual and LCD 2008, which are published by the government and on which Dr. relied.

Doctor hired two criminal attorneys who did not specialize in Medicare. Doctor gets charged, and attorneys convince him to plead guilty claiming that he cannot fight the government. And that the government will seize his property if he doesn’t settle.

He pled guilty to a crime that he did not do. He paid millions in restitution, was under house arrest for 15 months, the Medical Board revoked his medical license, and he lost his career.

The lesson here is always fight the government. But choose wisely with whom you fight.

Increased Medicare Reimbursements and Nursing Home Audits

HEAR YE, HEAR YE: Medicare reimbursement rate increase!!

On April 27th, CMS proposed a rule to increase Medicare fee-for-service payment rates and policies for inpatient hospitals and long-term care hospitals for fiscal year (FY) 2022. The proposed rule will update Medicare payment policies and rates for operating and capital‑related costs of acute care hospitals and for certain hospitals. The proposed increase in operating payment rates for general acute care hospitals paid under the IPPS that successfully participate in the Hospital Inpatient Quality Reporting (“IQR”) Program and are meaningful electronic health record (“EHR”) users is approximately 2.8%. This reflects the projected hospital market basket update of 2.5% reduced by a 0.2 percentage point productivity adjustment and increased by a 0.5 percentage point adjustment required by legislation.

Secondly, a sample audit of nursing homes conducted by CMS will lead to more scrutiny of nursing homes and long-term care facilities. The sample audit showed that two-thirds of Massachusetts’s nursing homes that receive federal Medicaid and Medicare funding are lagging in required annual inspections — and MA is demonstrative of the country.

237 nursing homes and long-term care facilities in the state, or 63.7% of the total, are behind on their federal health and safety inspections by at least 18 months. The national average is 51.3%.

We cannot blame COVID for everything. Those inspections lagged even before the pandemic, the data shows, but ground to a halt last year when the federal agency discontinued in-person visits to nursing homes as they were closed off to the public to help prevent spread of the COVID.

Lastly, on April 29, 2021, CMS issued a final rule to extend and make changes to the Comprehensive Care for Joint Replacement (“CJR”) model. You’ve probably heard Dr. Ron Hirsch reporting on the joint replacement model on RACMonitor. The CJR model aims to pay providers based on total episodes of care for hip and knee replacements to curb costs and improve quality. Hospitals in the model that meet spending and quality thresholds can get an additional Medicare payment. But hospitals that don’t meet targets must repay Medicare for a portion of their spending.

This final rule revises the episode definition, payment methodology, and makes other modifications to the model to adapt the CJR model to changes in practice and fee-for-service payment occurring over the past several years. The changes in practice and payment are expected to limit or reverse early evaluation results demonstrating the CJR model’s ability to achieve savings while sustaining quality. This rule provides the time needed to test modifications to the model by extending the CJR model for an additional three performance years through December 31, 2024 for certain participant hospitals.

The CJR model has proven successful according to CMS. It began in 2016. Hospitals had a “statistically significant decrease” in average payments for all hip and knee replacements relative to a control group. $61.6 million (a savings of 2% of the baseline)