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CMS Overlooks a Settlement Agreement from 2013 : A 2021 Provider Must Defend!

Today I am talking about a settlement agreement between CMS and the skilled nursing community, which, apparently, CMS conveniently forgot about – just recently. The Jimmo settlement agreement re-defines medical necessity for skilled nursing, especially for terminally, debilitating diseases, such as multiple sclerosis (“MS”). According to CMS/the MAC auditor, my client, who serves 100%, MS patients on Medicare owes over half a million dollars. The alleged overpayment and audit findings are in violation of the Jimmo Settlement and must cease.

My client received correspondence dated February 25, 2021, regarding CMS Inquiry #2349 that re-alleged an overpayment in the amount of $578,564.45, but the audit is in violation of the Jimmo Settlement with CMS. One basis for the claims denials is that “There is doc that the pt. has a dx of MS with no doc of recent exacerbation or change in function status.” After the first level of appeal, on June 8, 2021, the denial reason was as follows:

“The initial evaluation did not document there was an ACUTE exacerbation of this chronic condition that would support the need for skilled services.” This basis is in violation of the Jimmo Settlement. See below excerpt from the Jimmo Settlement.

In January 2013, the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (“CMS”) settled a lawsuit, and the “Jimmo” Settlement Agreement was approved by the Court. Jimmo v. Sebelius, No. 5:11-CV17 (D. Vt., 1/24/2013). The Jimmo Settlement Agreement clarified that, provided all other coverage criteria are met, the Medicare program covers skilled nursing care and skilled therapy services under Medicare’s skilled nursing facility, home health, and outpatient therapy benefits when a beneficiary needs skilled care in order to maintain function or to prevent or slow decline or deterioration. Specifically, the Jimmo Settlement Agreement required Medicare Manual revisions to restate a “maintenance coverage standard” for both skilled nursing and therapy services under these benefits. The Jimmo Settlement Agreement dictates that:

“Specifically, in accordance with the settlement agreement, the manual revisions clarify that coverage of skilled nursing and skilled therapy services in the skilled nursing facility (SNF), home health (HH), and outpatient therapy (OPT) settings “…does not turn on the presence or absence of a beneficiary’s potential for improvement, but rather on the beneficiary’s need for skilled care.” Skilled care may be necessary to improve a patient’s current condition, to maintain the patient’s current condition, or to prevent or slow further deterioration of the patient’s condition.”

In the case of Jimmo v. Sebelius, which resulted in the Jimmo Settlement Agreement, the Center for Medicare Advocacy (“CMA”) alleged that Medicare claims involving skilled care were being inappropriately denied by contractors based on a rule-of-thumb-“Improvement Standard”— under which a claim would be summarily denied due to a beneficiary’s lack of restoration potential, even though the beneficiary did in fact require a covered level of skilled care in order to prevent or slow further deterioration in his or her clinical condition. In the Jimmo lawsuit, CMS denied establishing an improper rule-of-thumb “Improvement Standard.”

While an expectation of improvement would be a reasonable criterion to consider when evaluating, for example, a claim in which the goal of treatment is restoring a prior capability, Medicare policy has long recognized that there may also be specific instances where no improvement is expected but skilled care is, nevertheless, required in order to prevent or slow deterioration and maintain a beneficiary at the maximum practicable level of function. For example, in the federal regulations at 42 CFR 409.32(c), the level of care criteria for SNF coverage specify that the “. . . restoration potential of a patient is not the deciding factor in determining whether skilled services are needed. Even if full recovery or medical improvement is not possible, a patient may need skilled services to prevent further deterioration or preserve current capabilities.” The Medicare statute and regulations have never supported the imposition of an “Improvement Standard” rule-of-thumb in determining whether skilled care is required to prevent or slow deterioration in a patient’s condition.

A beneficiary’s lack of restoration potential cannot serve as the basis for denying coverage, without regard to an individualized assessment of the beneficiary’s medical condition and the reasonableness and necessity of the treatment, care, or services in question. Conversely, coverage in this context would not be available in a situation where the beneficiary’s care needs can be addressed safely and effectively through the use of nonskilled personnel. Thus, such coverage depends not on the beneficiary’s restoration potential, but on whether skilled care is required, along with the underlying reasonableness and necessity of the services themselves.

Any Medicare coverage or appeals decisions concerning skilled care coverage must reflect this basic principle. In this context, it is also essential and has always been required that claims for skilled care coverage include sufficient documentation to substantiate clearly that skilled care is required, that it is provided, and that the services themselves are reasonable and necessary, thereby facilitating accurate and appropriate claims adjudication.

The Jimmo Settlement Agreement includes language specifying that “Nothing in this Settlement Agreement modifies, contracts, or expands the existing eligibility requirements for receiving Medicare coverage. Id. The Jimmo Settlement Agreement clarifies that when skilled services are required in order to provide care that is reasonable and necessary to prevent or slow further deterioration, coverage cannot be denied based on the absence of potential for improvement or restoration.

100% of my client’s consumers suffer from MS. MS is a chronic condition that facilitates a consistent decline over a long period of time. 90% of those with MS do not suffer from acute exacerbations after approximately 5 years of their initial diagnosis. They move into a new phase of their disease called secondary progressive where there are no exacerbations but a slow, consistent decline is now the clinical presentation. According to the Jimmo Settlement, there is no requirement that a provider demonstrate recent exacerbation or change of function. This has been litigated and settled. My client’s Medicare audit is in violation of the Jimmo Settlement and must cease, yet the audit must still be defended.

My client’s documents clearly demonstrate that its consumers who all suffer from MS, qualify for skilled therapy based on the Jimmo Settlement Agreement and their physicians’ recommendations. The Jimmo Settlement clearly states that if the therapist determines that skilled nursing is necessary to stop further decline, then, under the Jimmo Settlement, skilled nursing is appropriate.

Now my client is having to defend itself against erroneous allegations that are clearly in violation of the Jimmo Settlement, which is adversely affecting the company financially. It’s amazing that in 2021, my client is defending a right given in a settlement agreement from 2013. Stay proactive!

OIG Opens Fire on Telehealth Claims during COVID

They’re here….

Steven Spielberg actually directed Poltergeist, crew member confirms | The  Independent | The Independent

The audits of telehealth during COVID. OIG is conducting, at least, seven (7) nationwide audits of providers specific to telemedicine. These audits will review remote patient monitoring, virtual check-ins, and e-visits. In 2018, OIG issued a report regarding a 31% error rate of claims for telehealth – and that report was prior to the explosion of telemedicine in 2020 due to COVID. All providers who have billed telehealth during the public health emergency (“PHE”) should be prepared to undergo audits of those claims.

The following audit projects are as follows:

  • Audits of behavioral health care telehealth in Medicaid managed care;
  • Audits of Medicare Part B telehealth services during PHE;
  • Audits of home health services provided as telehealth during the PHE;
  • Audits of home health agencies’ challenges and strategies in responding to the PHE;
  • Medicare telehealth services during PHE: Program Integrity Risks;
  • Audits of telehealth services in Medicare Parts B (non-institutional services) and C (managed care) during the COVID-19 pandemic;
  • Medicaid: Telehealth expansion during PHE.

Recently added to the “chopping block” of audits via OIG include Medicare payments for clinical diagnostic laboratory tests in 2020. OIG will also audit for accuracy of place-of-service codes on claims for Medicare Part B physician services when beneficiaries are inpatients under Part A. As it always seems is the case, home health and behavioral health care are big, red targets for all audits. Over the pandemic, telehealth became the “new norm.” Audits on telehealth will be forthcoming. Specifically in behavioral health, OIG announced that it will audit Medicaid applied behavior analysis for children diagnosed with autism.

On another note, I recently had a client undergo a meaningful use audit. Everyone knows the government provides incentives for using electronic records. In order to qualify for a meaningful use incentive you must meet 9 criteria. If you fail one criterion, you owe the money back. One of the biggest issue physicians have faced in an audit is demonstrating the “yes/no” requirements that call for attestation proving the security risk analysis was successfully met. In this particular case, opposing counsel was a GA state AG. The attorney told me that he had zero authority to negotiate the penalty amount. It was the first time another lawyer told me that the penalty was basically a “strict liability” issue, and since the funds were federal, the State of GA had no authority to reduce or remove the penalty. But there is an appeal process. It made no sense. In this case, the doctor didn’t want to pursue litigation. So, reluctantly, we paid. I am wondering if any of my readers have encountered this issue of no negotiations for meaningful use penalties.

“5 Minutes With” Knicole Emanuel from Practus LLP

I had the pleasure of being interviewed a second time on Legal Buzz. Thanks, Alex!!

More Covered Health Care Services and More Policing under the Biden Administration!

Happy 55th Medicare! Pres. Biden’s health care policies differ starkly from former Pres. Trump’s. I will discuss some of the key differences. The newest $1.9 trillion COVID bill passed February 27th. President Biden is sending a clear message for health care providers: His agenda includes expanding government-run, health insurance and increase oversight on it. In 2021, Medicare is celebrating its 55th year of providing health insurance. The program was first signed into law in 1965 and began offering coverage in 1966. That first year, 19 million Americans enrolled in Medicare for their health care coverage. As of 2019, more than 61 million Americans were enrolled in the program.

Along with multiple Executive Orders, Pres. Biden is clearly broadening the Affordable Care Act (“ACA”), Medicaid and Medicare programs. Indicating an emphasis on oversight, President Biden chose former California Attorney General Xavier Becerra to lead HHS. Becerra was a prosecutor and plans to bring his prosecutorial efforts to the nation’s health care. President Biden used executive action to reopen enrollment in ACA marketplaces, a step in his broader agenda to bolster the Act with a new optional government health plan.

For example, one of my personal, favorite issues that Pres. Biden will address is parity for Medicare coverage for medically necessary, oral health care. In fact, Medicare coverage extends to the treatment of all microbial infections except for those originating from the teeth or periodontium. There is simply no medical justification for this exclusion, especially in light of the broad agreement among health care providers that such care is integral to the medical management of numerous diseases and medical conditions.

The Biden administration has taken steps to roll back a controversial Trump-era rule that requires Medicaid beneficiaries to work in order to receive coverage. Two weeks ago, CMS sent letters to several states that received approval for a Section 1115 waiver – for Medicaid. CMS said it was beginning a process to determine whether to withdraw the approval. States that received a letter include Arizona, Arkansas, Georgia, Indiana, Nebraska, Ohio, South Carolina, Utah, and Wisconsin. The work requirement waivers that HHS approved at the end of the previous administration’s term may not survive the new presidency.

Post Payment Reviews—Recovery Audit Contractor (“RAC”) audits will increase during the Biden administration. The RAC program was created by the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act of 2003. As we all know, the RACs are responsible for identifying Medicare overpayments and underpayments and for highlighting common billing errors, trends, and other Medicare payment issues. In addition to collecting overpayments, the data generated from RAC audits allows CMS to make changes to prevent improper payments in the future. The RACs are paid on a contingency fee basis and, therefore, only receive payment when recovery is made. This creates overzealous auditors and, many times, inaccurate findings. In 2010, the Obama administration directed federal agencies to increase the use of auditing programs such as the RACs to help protect the integrity of the Medicare program. The RAC program is relatively low cost and high value for CMS. It is likely that the health care industry will see growth in this area under the Biden administration. To that end, the expansion of audits will not only be RAC auditors, but will include increased oversight by MACs, CERTs, UPICs, etc.

Telehealth audits will be a focus for Pres. Biden. With increased use of telehealth due to COVID, comes increased telehealth fraud, allegedly. On September 30, 2020, the inter-agency National Health Care Take Down Initiative announced that it charged hundreds of defendants ostensibly responsible for—among other things—$4.5 billion in false and fraudulent claims relating to telehealth advertisements and services. Unfortunately for telehealth, bad actors are prevalent and will spur on more and more oversight.

Both government-initiated litigation and qui tam suits appear set for continued growth in 2021. Health care fraud and abuse dominated 2020 federal False Claims Act (“FCA”) recoveries, with almost 85 percent of FCA proceeds derived from HHS. The increase of health care enforcement payouts reflects how important government paid health insurance is in America. Becerra’s incoming team is, in any case, expected to generally ramp up law enforcement activities—both to punish health care fraud and abuse and as an exercise of HHS’s policy-making authorities.

With more than $1 billion of FCA payouts in 2020 derived from federal Anti-Kickback Statute (“AKS”) settlements alone, HHS’s heavy reliance on the FCA because it is a strong statute with “big teeth,” i.e., penalties are harsh. For these same reasons, prosecutors and qui tam relators will likely continue to focus their efforts on AKS enforcement in the Biden administration, despite the recent regulatory carveouts from the AKS and an emerging legal challenge from drug manufacturers.

The individual mandate is back in. The last administration got rid of the individual mandate when former Pres. Trump signed the GOP tax bill into law in 2017. Pres. Biden will bring back the penalty for not being covered under health insurance under his plan. Since the individual mandate currently is not federal law, a Biden campaign official said that he would use a combination of Executive Orders to undo the changes.

In an effort to lower the skyrocketing costs of prescription drugs, Pres. Biden’s plan would repeal existing law that currently bans Medicare from negotiating lower prices with drug manufacturers. He would also limit price increases for all brand, biotech and generic drugs and launch prices for drugs that do not have competition.

Consumers would also be able to buy cheaper priced prescription drugs from other countries, which could help mobilize competition. And Biden would terminate their advertising tax break in an effort to also help lower costs.

In all, the Biden administration is expected to expand health care, medical, oral, and telehealth, while simultaneously policing health care providers for aberrant billing practices. My advice for providers: Be cognizant of your billing practices. You have an opportunity with this administration to increase revenue from government-paid services but do so compliantly.

Premature Recoupment of Medicare Reimbursements Defies Due Process!

Who knows that – regardless your innocence –the government can and will recoup your funds preemptively at the third level of Medicare appeals. This flies in the face of the elements of due process. However, courts have ruled that the redetermination and the reconsideration levels afford the providers enough due process, which entails notice and an opportunity to be heard. I am here to tell you – that is horse manure. The first two levels of a Medicare appeal are hoops to jump through in order to get to an independent tribunal – the administrative law judge (“ALJ”). The odds of winning at the 1st or 2nd level Medicare appeal is next to zilch, although often you can get the alleged amount reduced. The first level is before the same entity that found you owe the money. Auditors are normally not keen on overturning themselves. The second level is little better. The first time that you present to an independent tribunal is at the third level.

Between 2009 and 2014, the number of ALJ appeals increased more than 1,200 percent. And the government recoups all alleged overpayments before you ever get before an ALJ.

In a recent case, Sahara Health Care, Inc. v. Azar, 975 F.3d 523 (5th Cir. 2020), a home health care provider brought an action against Secretary of Department of Health and Human Services (“HHS”) and Administrator for the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (“CMS”), asserting that its statutory and due process rights were violated and that defendants acted ultra vires by recouping approximately $2.4 million in Medicare overpayments without providing a timely ALJ hearing. HHS moved to dismiss, and the provider moved to amend, for a temporary restraining order (“TRO”) and preliminary injunction, and for an expedited hearing.

The case was thrown out, concluding that adequate process had been provided and that defendants had not exceeded statutory authority, and denied provider’s motion for injunctive relief and to amend. The provider appealed and lost again.

What’s the law?

Congress prohibited HHS from recouping payments during the first two stages of administrative review. 42 U.S.C. § 1395ff(f)(2)(A).

If repayment of an overpayment would constitute an “extreme hardship, as determined by the Secretary,” the agency “shall enter into a plan with the provider” for repayment “over a period of at least 60 months but … not longer than 5 years.” 42 U.S.C. § 1395ddd(f)(1)(A). That hardship safety valve has some exceptions that work against insolvent providers. If “the Secretary has reason to believe that the provider of services or supplier may file for bankruptcy or otherwise cease to do business or discontinue participation” in the Medicare program, then the extended repayment plan is off the table. 42 U.S.C. § 1395ddd(f)(1)(C)(i). A provider that ultimately succeeds in overturning an overpayment determination receives the wrongfully recouped payments with interest. 42 U.S.C. § 1395ddd(f)(2)(B). The government’s interest rate is high. If you do have to pay back the alleged overpayment prematurely, the silver lining is that you may receive extra money for your troubles.

The years-long back log, however, may dwindle. The agency has received a funding increase, and currently expects to clear the backlog by 2022. In fact, the Secretary is under a Mandamus Order requiring such a timetable. 

A caveat regarding this grim news. This was in the Fifth Circuit. Other Courts disagree. The Fourth Circuit has held that providers do have property interests in Medicare reimbursements owed for services rendered, which is the correct holding. Of course, you have a property interest in your own money. An allegation of wrongdoing does not erase that property interest. The Fourth Circuit agrees with me.

A Study of Contractor Consistency in Reviewing Extrapolated Overpayments

By Frank Cohen, MPA, MBB – my colleague from RACMonitor. He wrote a great article and has permitted me to share it with you. See below.

CMS levies billions of dollars in overpayments a year against healthcare providers, based on the use of extrapolation audits.

The use of extrapolation in Medicare and private payer audits has been around for quite some time now. And lest you be of the opinion that extrapolation is not appropriate for claims-based audits, there are many, many court cases that have supported its use, both specifically and in general. Arguing that extrapolation should not have been used in a given audit, unless that argument is supported by specific statistical challenges, is mostly a waste of time. 

For background purposes, extrapolation, as it is used in statistics, is a “statistical technique aimed at inferring the unknown from the known. It attempts to predict future data by relying on historical data, such as estimating the size of a population a few years in the future on the basis of the current population size and its rate of growth,” according to a definition created by Eurostat, a component of the European Union. For our purposes, extrapolation is used to estimate what the actual overpayment amount might likely be for a population of claims, based on auditing a smaller sample of that population. For example, say a Uniform Program Integrity Contractor (UPIC) pulls 30 claims from a medical practice from a population of 10,000 claims. The audit finds that 10 of those claims had some type of coding error, resulting in an overpayment of $500. To extrapolate this to the entire population of claims, one might take the average overpayment, which is the $500 divided by the 30 claims ($16.67 per claim) and multiply this by the total number of claims in the population. In this case, we would multiply the $16.67 per claim by 10,000 for an extrapolated overpayment estimate of $166,667. 

The big question that normally crops up around extrapolation is this: how accurate are the estimates? And the answer is (wait for it …), it depends. It depends on just how well the sample was created, meaning: was the sample size appropriate, were the units pulled properly from the population, was the sample truly random, and was it representative of the population? The last point is particularly important, because if the sample is not representative of the population (in other words, if the sample data does not look like the population data), then it is likely that the extrapolated estimate will be anything but accurate.

To account for this issue, referred to as “sample error,” statisticians will calculate something called a confidence interval (CI), which is a range within which there is some acceptable amount of error. The higher the confidence value, the larger the potential range of error. For example, in the hypothetical audit outlined above, maybe the real average for a 90-percent confidence interval is somewhere between $15 and $18, while, for a 95-percent confidence interval, the true average is somewhere between $14 and $19. And if we were to calculate for a 99-percent confidence interval, the range might be somewhere between $12 and $21. So, the greater the range, the more confident I feel about my average estimate. Some express the confidence interval as a sense of true confidence, like “I am 90 percent confident the real average is somewhere between $15 and $18,” and while this is not necessarily wrong, per se, it does not communicate the real value of the CI. I have found that the best way to define it would be more like “if I were to pull 100 random samples of 30 claims and audit all of them, 90 percent would have a true average of somewhere between $15 and $18,” meaning that the true average for some 1 out of 10 would fall outside of that range – either below the lower boundary or above the upper boundary. The main reason that auditors use this technique is to avoid challenges based on sample error.

To the crux of the issue, the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) levies billions of dollars in overpayments a year against healthcare providers, based on the use of extrapolation audits. And while the use of extrapolation is well-established and well-accepted, its use in an audit is not an automatic, and depends upon the creation of a statistically valid and representative sample. Thousands of extrapolation audits are completed each year, and for many of these, the targeted provider or organization will appeal the use of extrapolation. In most cases, the appeal is focused on one or more flaws in the methodology used to create the sample and calculate the extrapolated overpayment estimate. For government audits, such as with UPICs, there is a specific appeal process, as outlined in their Medical Learning Network booklet, titled “Medicare Parts A & B Appeals Process.”

On Aug. 20, 2020, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Office of Inspector General (HHS OIG) released a report titled “Medicare Contractors Were Not Consistent in How They Reviewed Extrapolated Overpayments in the Provider Appeals Process.” This report opens with the following statement: “although MACs (Medicare Administrative Contractors) and QICs (Qualified Independent Contractors) generally reviewed appealed extrapolated overpayments in a manner that conforms with existing CMS requirements, CMS did not always provide sufficient guidance and oversight to ensure that these reviews were performed in a consistent manner.” These inconsistencies were associated with $42 million in extrapolated payments from fiscal years 2017 and 2018 that were overturned in favor of the provider. It’s important to note that at this point, we are only talking about appeal determinations at the first and second level, known as redetermination and reconsideration, respectively.

Redetermination is the first level of appeal, and is adjudicated by the MAC. And while the staff that review the appeals at this level are supposed to have not been involved in the initial claim determination, I believe that most would agree that this step is mostly a rubber stamp of approval for the extrapolation results. In fact, of the hundreds of post-audit extrapolation mitigation cases in which I have been the statistical expert, not a single one was ever overturned at redetermination.

The second level of appeal, reconsideration, is handled by a QIC. In theory, the QIC is supposed to independently review the administrative records, including the appeal results of redetermination. Continuing with the prior paragraph, I have to date had only several extrapolation appeals reversed at reconsideration; however, all were due to the fact that the auditor failed to provide the practice with the requisite data, and not due to any specific issues with the statistical methodology. In two of those cases, the QIC notified the auditor that if they were to get the required information to them, they would reconsider their decision. And in two other cases, the auditor appealed the decision, and it was reversed again. Only the fifth case held without objection and was adjudicated in favor of the provider.

Maybe this is a good place to note that the entire process for conducting extrapolations in government audits is covered under Chapter 8 of the Medicare Program Integrity Manual (PIM). Altogether, there are only 12 pages within the entire Manual that actually deal with the statistical methodology behind sampling and extrapolation; this is certainly not enough to provide the degree of guidance required to ensure consistency among the different government contractors that perform such audits. And this is what the OIG report is talking about.

Back to the $42 million that was overturned at either redetermination or reconsideration: the OIG report found that this was due to a “type of simulation testing that was performed only by a subset of contractors.” The report goes on to say that “CMS did not intend that the contractors use this procedure, (so) these extrapolations should not have been overturned. Conversely, if CMS intended that contractors use this procedure, it is possible that other extrapolations should have been overturned but were not.” This was quite confusing for me at first, because this “simulation” testing was not well-defined, and also because it seemed to say that if this procedure was appropriate to use, then more contractors should have used it, which would have resulted in more reversals in favor of the provider.   

Interestingly, CMS seems to have written itself an out in Chapter 8, section 8.4.1.1 of the PIM, which states that “[f]ailure by a contractor to follow one or more of the requirements contained herein does not necessarily affect the validity of the statistical sampling that was conducted or the projection of the overpayment.” The use of the term “does not necessarily” leaves wide open the fact that the failure by a contractor to follow one or more of the requirements may affect the validity of the statistical sample, which will affect the validity of the extrapolated overpayment estimate. 

Regarding the simulation testing, the report stated that “one MAC performed this type of simulation testing for all extrapolation reviews, and two MACs recently changed their policies to include simulation testing for sample designs that are not well-supported by the program integrity contractor. In contrast, both QICs and three MACs did not perform simulation testing and had no plans to start using it in the future.” And even though it was referenced some 20 times, with the exception of an example given as Figure 2 on page 10, the report never did describe in any detail the type of simulation testing that went on. From the example, it was evident to me that the MACs and QICs involved were using what is known as a Monte Carlo simulation. In statistics, simulation is used to assess the performance of a method, typically when there is a lack of theoretical background. With simulations, the statistician knows and controls the truth. Simulation is used advantageously in a number of situations, including providing the empirical estimation of sampling distributions. Footnote 10 in the report stated that ”reviewers used the specific simulation test referenced here to provide information about whether the lower limit for a given sampling design was likely to achieve the target confidence level.” If you are really interested in learning more about it, there is a great paper called
“The design of simulation studies in medical statistics” by Burton et al. (2006). 

Its application in these types of audits is to “simulate” the audit many thousands of times to see if the mean audit results fall within the expected confidence interval range, thereby validating the audit results within what is known as the Central Limit Theorem (CLT).

Often, the sample sizes used in recoupment-type audits are too small, and this is usually due to a conflict between the sample size calculations and the distributions of the data. For example, in RAT-STATS, the statistical program maintained by the OIG, and a favorite of government auditors, sample size estimates are based on an assumption that the data are normally (or near normally) distributed. A normal distribution is defined by the mean and the standard deviation, and includes a bunch of characteristics that make sample size calculations relatively straightforward. But the truth is, because most auditors use the paid amount as the variable of interest, population data are rarely, if ever, normally distributed. Unfortunately, there is simply not enough room or time to get into the details of distributions, but suffice it to say that, because paid data are bounded on the left with zero (meaning that payments are never less than zero), paid data sets are almost always right-skewed. This means that the distribution tail continues on to the right for a very long distance.  

In these types of skewed situations, sample size normally has to be much larger in order to meet the CLT requirements. So, what one can do is simulate the random sample over and over again to see whether the sampling results ever end up reporting a normal distribution – and if not, it means that the results of that sample should not be used for extrapolation. And this seems to be what the OIG was talking about in this report. Basically, they said that some but not all of the appeals entities (MACs and QICs) did this type of simulation testing, and others did not. But for those that did perform the tests, the report stated that $41.5 million of the $42 million involved in the reversals of the extrapolations were due to the use of this simulation testing. The OIG seems to be saying this: if this was an unintended consequence, meaning that there wasn’t any guidance in place authorizing this type of testing, then it should not have been done, and those extrapolations should not have been overturned. But if it should have been done, meaning that there should have been some written guidance to authorize that type of testing, then it means that there are likely many other extrapolations that should have been reversed in favor of the provider. A sticky wicket, at best.

Under the heading “Opportunity To Improve Contractor Understanding of Policy Updates,” the report also stated that “the MACs and QICs have interpreted these requirements differently. The MAC that previously used simulation testing to identify the coverage of the lower limit stated that it planned to continue to use that approach. Two MACs that previously did not perform simulation testing indicated that they would start using such testing if they had concerns about a program integrity contractor’s sample design. Two other MACs, which did not use simulation testing, did not plan to change their review procedures.” One QIC indicated that it would defer to the administrative QIC (AdQIC, the central manager for all Medicare fee-for-service claim case files appealed to the QIC) regarding any changes. But it ended this paragraph by stating that “AdQIC did not plan to change the QIC Manual in response to the updated PIM.”

With respect to this issue and this issue alone, the OIG submitted two specific recommendations, as follows:

  • Provide additional guidance to MACs and QICs to ensure reasonable consistency in procedures used to review extrapolated overpayments during the first two levels of the Medicare Parts A and B appeals process; and
  • Take steps to identify and resolve discrepancies in the procedures that MACs and QICs use to review extrapolations during the appeals process.

In the end, I am not encouraged that we will see any degree of consistency between and within the QIC and MAC appeals in the near future.

Basically, it would appear that the OIG, while having some oversight in the area of recommendations, doesn’t really have any teeth when it comes to enforcing change. I expect that while some reviewers may respond appropriately to the use of simulation testing, most will not, if it means a reversal of the extrapolated findings. In these cases, it is incumbent upon the provider to ensure that these issues are brought up during the Administrative Law Judge (ALJ) appeal.

Programming Note: Listen to Frank Cohen report this story live during the next edition of Monitor Mondays, 10 a.m. Eastern.

Goodbye, 2020: New Resolutions for Health Care Providers

By Ashley Thomson. (Knicole Emanuel‘s law partner. See below for a bio).

As 2020 ends and we look forward to starting a new chapter in 2021, we offer you this little nugget of advice—a resolution that sounds deceptively easy—read your mail.  Yes, friends you heard it here first. . . the best thing you can do to protect yourself, your business, your patients, and your loved ones is to read the dang mail.  Email, text messages, real mail, carrier pigeon or messages in a bottle.  READ THEM!  

2020 brought us a lot of curve balls and unexpected events but some of those events could have been avoided had mail been opened and read.

CMS and its third party contractors hold a lot of power in the healthcare world and can cause your practice to come crashing down by hitting send or putting a forever stamp on a letter.  A regular practice of reading your mail can avoid that CMS avalanche of doom. [1]

You may be reading this and thinking, you’ve got to be crazy I always read my mail.  Or perhaps you are thinking, this is the easiest new year’s resolution yet—all I have to do is read the mail.

Don’t be too hasty with your self-confidence. This is a hard practice to establish and an even harder one to maintain.

First, you have to actually read the mail.  All of the mail.  Even the mail you think will contain bad news.  Constitutional due process requires only notice NOT successful notice. If successful notice were required, “then people could evade knowledge, and avoid responsibility for their conduct, by burning notices on receipt—or just leaving them unopened.” See Ho v. Donovan, 569 F.3d 677, 680 (7th Cir. 2009). “Conscious avoidance of information is a form of knowledge.” Id.

Second, you need a policy or procedure regarding the opening and reading of mail.  One client we worked with did not have a system for logging mail once it was received in the office.  Mail was lost.  Deadlines were missed.  Payments from the largest payer were suspended. The cost – too much to print.

It’s like that old Mastercard ad, yes, I’m talking to those of you out there who were around in the late 90s.[2] 

The cost of establishing a policy for logging in mail. . . zero.   

The cost of reading mail. . . zero.

The cost of neglecting your mail, missing deadlines, and losing your practice. . . priceless.

So, as this year ends and you contemplate ways to improve your practice in 2021, please, please, please take our advice and READ YOUR MAIL.


[1]It’s not just CMS that has holds the mailbox power.  Just ask the City of North Charleston, SC.  A motorist’s emailed complaint to the city over injuries sustained in an accident was not forwarded to the insurance carrier resulting in a multi-million dollar default judgement against the city.  See Campbell v. City of North Charleston, 431 S.C. 454,459 (SC Ct. App. 2020) (holding that “the failure to forward an email did not amount to good cause shown for failure to timely file an answer).   

[2] For those of you who have no idea what we are talking about see https://www.aaaa.org/timeline-event/mastercard-mccann-erickson-campaign-never-got-old-priceless/  

Click for past blogs with other helpful tips to avoid Medicare and Medicaid recoupments. medicaidlaw-nc.wordpress.com – Tip #2. 4. 6.

Ashley Thomson brings 20 years of extensive in-house, hospital counsel and law firm experience to our team.  Well-versed in a variety of disciplines, her emphasis is in health care, insurance and compliance, specifically medical malpractice, employment, healthcare and privacy law compliance and defense, including matters involving HIPAA. Ashley has also been heavily involved in risk management, patient safety, corporate governance, contract and policy drafting, negotiations and healthcare management. Prior to joining Practus, Ashley served as Associate General Counsel for Truman Medical Center (TMC) where she oversaw litigation, managed all aspects of their corporate compliance matters, including governmental audits and investigations, cybersecurity issues, HIPAA enforcement, 340B compliance and provider-based billing.  As their Staff Litigation Counsel, she defended and litigated medical malpractice and general liability matters on behalf of the hospital, its employees, physician group and residents. Prior to joining TMC, Ashley was an Associate Attorney for Husch Blackwell.

Ashley is an outdoors woman at heart. When she’s not working, she’s hiking, walking, working in her yard, or playing with her kids. She’s also an avid reader and a football fan especially when she’s watching her favorite team, the Kansas City Chiefs! 

Provider Relief Funds: The Hottest RAC Audit Subject

Reporting the use of PRFs will be an ongoing issue due to the fraud and abuse implications of misusing PRFs.

The federal Provider Relief Fund (PRF) was created under the provisions of the Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security (CARES) Act, which was passed to address the economic harm suffered by healthcare providers that have incurred (or will incur) additional expenses and have lost (or will lose) significant revenue as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. PRF payments have been made from either the “general distribution” tranche or via various “targeted distributions.” PRF payment amounts and whether the providers complied with the terms and conditions will be a hotly contested topic in Recovery Audit Contractor (RAC) and Medicare Administrative Contractor (MAC) audits for years to come. If Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) auditors put out a monthly magazine, like Time, PRF would be on the cover. This will be the hot topic of RAC audits, come Jan. 1, 2021.

The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) Office of Inspector General (OIG) will audit Medicare payments made to hospitals for COVID-19 discharges that qualified for the 20-percent add-on payment under the CARES Act, according to a new item on the agency’s work plan.

To use the PRF funding from either the general or targeted distributions, providers must attest to receiving the funds and agree to all terms and conditions. However, what constitutes a “healthcare-related expense” or how to calculate “lost revenue” is not clearly defined. Similarly, how you net healthcare-related expenses toward lost revenue is also vague and undefined. On Nov. 2, HHS issued a clarification to post-payment reporting guidance for PRF funds.

The current guidance, issued Oct. 22, includes a two-step process for providers to report their use of PRF payments. The guidance specifically cites:

  • Healthcare-related expenses attributable to COVID that another source has not reimbursed and is not obligated to reimburse, which may include general and administrative (G&A) or “healthcare-related operating expenses;” and
  • PRF payment amounts not fully expended on healthcare-related expenses attributable to coronavirus are then applied to lost revenues associated with patient care, net of the healthcare-related expenses attributable to coronavirus calculated under the first step. Recipients may apply PRF payments toward lost revenue, up to the amount of the difference between their 2019 and 2020 actual patient care revenue.

HHS’s newest clarification came from its response to a FAQ, in which it said that healthcare-related expenses are no longer netted against the patient care lost revenue amount cited in the second portion. HHS indicated that a revised notice would be posted to remove the “net of the healthcare-related expenses” language in the guidance. Of course, as of now, we have no guidance regarding when this clarification is to be put into place officially. Yet another moving target for auditors.

Anticipate audits of the use of your PRF payments. CMS is choosing a sample of hospitals across the country that have received PRF payments to verify that such expenditures were for healthcare-related expenses. For each audit, OIG will obtain data and interview HHS/PRF program officials to understand how PRF payments were calculated, and then review actual PRF payments for compliance with CARES Act requirements. OIG will also review whether HHS’s controls over PRF payments ensured that payments were calculated correctly and disbursed to eligible providers.

Audits will also focus on how providers initially applied to receive PRFs, including calculations utilized and how COVID-19 patients are defined. When each hospital ceased netting expenses against lost revenue will now be another hot topic.

Balance billing is another area of interest. The terms and conditions require providers that accept the PRFs not to collect out-of-pocket payments from patients for all care for a presumptive or actual case of COVID-19 that exceeded what they would pay an in-network provider.

More havoc may ensue with any purchases or sales transactions that occur in the next year or so. Providers will need to know how to navigate compliance risks associated with any accepted or transferred PRFs. Tracking and reporting use of the PRFs will also be an ongoing issue due to the fraud and abuse implications of misusing PRFs, and there is limited guidance regarding how use will be audited. Many questions remain unanswered. Many terms remain undefined.

Programming Note: Knicole Emanuel, Esq. is a permanent panelist on Monitor Mondays. Listen to her RAC Report every Monday at 10 a.m. EST.

Update on Medicare/Medicaid Audits in the Wake of COVID-19

Published in Today’s Wound Clinic:

When I was asked to draft an article for Today’s Wound Clinic, it was approximately two weeks ago. I was asked to write about the current state of Medicare and Medicaid audits. Specifically, I was asked to provide a legal analysis about CMS suspending audits un-related to COVID-19. In the month of April, we have seen the spike of COVID-19, which has overturned our everyday world. We have been instructed by President Trump to “stay home” and “social distance” to decrease the spread of the virus. This “stay at home” instruction is unprecedented and has uprooted many of our most reliable and commonplace businesses, such as hairdressers, bowling alleys, and tattoo parlors.

Here is the answer: The current state of Medicare/Medicaid audits, at the moment, is dictated by COVID-19.

We can divide the post-COVID-19 audit rules into 3 categories:

  1. Those exceptions published by CMS to apply to all health care providers
  2. Those special, verbal exceptions given directly to an individual provider that were not published by CMS
  3. Effective immediately, new guidelines that CMS will follow until CMS believes it no longer needs to follow (by its own choice, of course).

An example of an “effective immediately” guideline is our current state of Medicare/Medicaid audits in the wake of COVID-19. CMS has not suspended all Medicare/Medicaid regulatory audits. But CMS has suspended most audits.

Effective immediately, survey activity is limited to the following (in Priority Order):

  • All immediate jeopardy complaints (cases that represents a situation in which entity noncompliance has placed the health and safety of recipients in its care at risk for serious injury, serious harm, serious impairment or death or harm) and allegations of abuse and neglect;
  • Complaints alleging infection control concerns, including facilities with potential COVID-19 or other respiratory illnesses;
  • Statutorily required recertification surveys (Nursing Home, Home Health, Hospice, and ICF/IID facilities);
  • Any re-visits necessary to resolve current enforcement actions;
  • Initial certifications;
  • Surveys of facilities/hospitals that have a history of infection control deficiencies at the immediate jeopardy level in the last three years;
  • Surveys of facilities/hospitals/dialysis centers that have a history of infection control deficiencies at lower levels than immediate jeopardy.

See CMS QSO-20-12-ALL. You can see that these “effective immediately” guidelines are usually published on CMS letterhead. The “effective immediately” guidelines explain why CMS is taking the stated action, the stated action, and that the action is temporary and due to COVID-19.

Here are a few recent “effective immediately” guidelines due to COVID-19:

  • On April 27, 2020, CMS said it would no longer expedite Medicare payments to doctors and be more stringent about accelerating the payments to hospitals as Congressional relief aimed at providers reaches $175 billion.
  • The agency is not accepting any new applications for the loans from Part B suppliers, including doctors, non-physician practitioners and durable medical equipment suppliers. CMS will continue to process pending and new requests from Part A providers, including hospitals, but be stricter with application approvals.
  • CMS expanded the Accelerated and Advance Payment Programs in late March as the pandemic continued to gain strength in the U.S. Since then, the agency has approved over 21,000 applications making up $59.6 billion in accelerated payments to Part A providers and almost 24,000 applications making up $40.4 billion in payments for Part B suppliers.

The $2.2 trillion Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security stimulus package passed by Congress in March benchmarked $100 billion in funds for hospitals. On Friday, President Donald Trump signed legislation with a second round of emergency funding, called the Paycheck Protection Program and Health Care Enhancement Act, that allocates another $75 billion for providers — roughly three-quarters of what major provider trade associations requested.

An initial $30 billion from the fund was distributed between April 10 and April 17 based on Medicare fee-for-service revenue, sparking criticism that put facilities with a smaller proportion of Medicare business, such as children’s and disproportionate share hospitals, at a disadvantage. HHS on Friday began releasing an additional $20 billion in CARES payments to providers based on their 2018 net patient revenue, with more funding to roll out “soon,” the agency said, including $10 billion for hard-hit areas like New York.

How RAC/MAC auditors are compensated dictates their actions and/or aggressiveness.

RAC Auditors are paid by contingency. They are usually compensated approximately 13%, depending on the State. Imagine what 13% is of 1 million. It is $130,000 – more than most people make in a year. If you do not believe that 13% contingency is enough to incentivize a company, which, in turn, incentivize the employees, then you are sorely mistaken.

RACs were established through a demonstration program under the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act of 2003 (“MMA”), piloted between 2005 and 2008, and were later made permanent under the Tax Relief and Health Care Act of 2006, which required CMS to establish Recovery Auditors for all states before 2010.

MACs are not compensated by contingency, per se. CMS decided to structure the MAC contracts with 1-year base performance periods and four, optional, 1-year performance periods at the time. The MMA required that these contracts be recompeted at least once every 5 years. The recent enactment of the Medicare Access and CHIP Reauthorization Act of 2015 amended this requirement to authorize a maximum 10-year performance period before MAC contracts must be recompeted. The amendment, which applies to MAC contracts in effect at the time of enactment or entered into on or after enactment, would permit CMS to modify existing MAC contracts or enter into future MAC contracts for 1-year base performance periods and nine optional 1-year performance periods. See Pub. L. No. 114-10, § 509(a)- (b) (April 16, 2015). Therefore, while MACs are not compensated on contingency, MACs are compensated on performance. The less a MAC spends, the more services a MAC allows, the strict oversight a MCA ensues on its providers…all these “performance-based” measures may not be a contingency compensation relationship, but it’s pretty close. Saved money becomes profit for MACs.

Medicare and Medicaid auditors love rules. Even if the rules that auditors are instructed to follow really are not required by actual law. It goes without saying that auditors are not lawyers. Auditors are not trained to decipher whether statutes, regulations or policy are superseded by federal statutes and regulations. The fact is that, more times than one would hope, the auditors are wrong in their assessments that a claim should be denied, not out of malice, but because of a basic misunderstanding of what the law actually requires.

I have all kinds of stories about auditors claiming money is owed, when, really it was not owed because the RAC/MAC auditor failed to follow the actual, correct procedure or misconstrued a regulation. For example, I had a durable medical equipment provider, DME ABC, who was informed by the NSC Supplier Audit and Compliance Unit of Palmetto GBA that it owed $1,075,548.64. Palmetto is one of the MACs for Medicare – durable medical equipment. There was no demand letter. The alleged overpayment amount came to fruition in a telephone conference between the CEO of the company and an employee of Palmetto. Let’s call her Nancy. Nancy told CEO that company owed $1,075,548.64 based on an alleged violation of 42 C.F.R. § 424.58,

Even more disconcerting, was the fact that Palmetto claimed that its alleged, oral overpayment against DME ABC arose from a normal, reoccurring validation process pursuant to 42 C.F.R. §424.57, approved by CMS and in accordance with the requirements of 42 C.F.R. §424.58. No formal letter was necessary was Palmetto’s retort. Not correct; a formal demand letter is always required.

In this case, Palmetto began to backtrack once we pointed out that Palmetto nor Nancy ever sent a formal demand letter with any reconsideration review appeal rights or administrative appeal rights. We knew this was procedurally incorrect because federal law dictates that you receive a formal demand letter with appeal rights and notice of how many days you have to appeal. But out of fear of retribution, DME ABC was willing to write a check without pushing back. Obviously, we did not do so.

I tell this story as an example of how intimidating, scary, and overwhelming auditors can be. If someone off the street asked you for a million dollars, you would laugh them off your doorstep, right? After you tell them to don a mask and maintain social distancing.

But in the new-age world of COVID-19, rules have been broken. This behavior would not be acceptable pre-COVID-19. But this provider honestly was going to pay.

The Trump Administration is issuing an unprecedented array of temporary regulatory waivers and new rules to equip the American healthcare system with maximum flexibility to respond to the 2019 Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic.

Pre-COVID-19 if you were to state “paperwork over patients,” everyone in the industry would agree. There would be snickers and eyes rolling, because no one wanted paperwork to be over patients. But it was. Now the mantra has flipped upside down – now the mantra is: Patients over Paperwork.

Post-COVID-19, if documents are lost or misplaced, or otherwise unusable, DME MACs have the flexibility to waive replacements requirements under Medicare such that the face-to-face requirement, a new physician’s order, and new medical necessity documentation are not required. Suppliers must still include a narrative description on the claim explaining the reason why the equipment must be replaced and are reminded to maintain documentation indicating that the DMEPOS was lost, destroyed, irreparably damaged or otherwise rendered unusable or unavailable as a result of the emergency.

Post-COVID-19, CMS is pausing the national Medicare Prior Authorization program for certain DMEPOS items. CMS is not requiring accreditation for newly enrolling DMEPOS and extending any expiring supplier accreditation for a 90-day time period. CMS is waiving signature and proof of delivery requirements for Part B drugs and Durable Medical Equipment when a signature cannot be obtained because of the inability to collect signatures. Suppliers should document in the medical record the appropriate date of delivery and that a signature was not able to be obtained because of COVID-19.

Post-COVID-19, in order to increase cash flow to providers impacted by COVID-19, CMS has expanded the current Accelerated and Advance Payment Program. An accelerated/advance payment is a payment intended to provide necessary funds when there is a disruption in claims submission and/or claims processing. CMS may provide accelerated or advance payments during the period of the public health emergency to any two Medicare providers/suppliers who submits a request to the appropriate MAC and meets the required qualifications. The process of obtaining the funds is a MAC-by-MAC process. Each MAC will work to review requests and issue payments within seven calendar days of receiving the request. Traditionally repayment of these advance/accelerated payments begins at 90 days, however for the purposes of the COVID-19 pandemic, CMS has extended the repayment of these accelerated/advance payments to begin 120 days after the date of issuance of the payment. Providers can get more information on this process here: www.cms.gov/files/document/Accelerated-and-Advanced-Payments-Fact-Sheet.pdf

The Future of Medicare/Medicaid Audits

The beauty of predicting the future is that no one can ever tell you that you are wrong. These are my predictions:

Auditors will deny claims for not having prior authorizations. Auditors will deny claims because the supplier accreditation expired after the 90-day time period. Auditors will deny claims because the percentage of face-to-face time was not met as described per CPT codes.

Obviously, these would be erroneous denials if the denials are within the dates that the COVID-19 pandemic occurred. The problem will be that the auditors will not be able to keep up with all the exceptions, not because the auditors are acting out of malice or dislikes providers. They will be simply trying to do their job. They will simply not be able to take into consideration all the exceptions that were given during the virus. Because, while we do have many written exceptions, if you call CMS with a personal and individualized problem, CMS will, most likely, grant you a needed exception. As long as the exception has the best interest of the consumer at heart. However, this personalized exception will not be written on CMS’s website. In five years, when you undergo a MAC or RAC audit, you better have proof that you received that exception. It will not be enough proof for you to state that you were given the exception over the phone.

So how can you protect yourself from future, erroneous audits?

Write everything down. When you speak to CMS, document concurrently the date, time, name of the person to whom you are speaking, the summary of your conversation, the COVID-19 regulatory exception, sign it and date it.

It is a hearsay exception. Writing down everything does not magically transform your note into the truth. However, writing down everything concurrently does magically allow that note that you wrote to be allowed in a court of law as an exhibit. Had you not written the note contemporaneously with the conversation that you had with CMS, then the attorney on the other side of the case would move to exclude your handwritten or typed note as hearsay.

Hearsay is defined as a statement that (1) the declarant does not make while testifying at the current trial or hearing; and (2) a party offers in evidence to prove the truth of the matter asserted in a statement. There are too many hearsay exceptions to name in this article.

Just know, for purposes of this article, that any health care provider who is relying on an exception to a normally required regulatory mandate – regardless what it is – either be able to: (1) cite the written exception that was published by CMS to the public; or (2) produce the written or typed contemporaneously written note that you wrote to memorialize the conversation.

Coronavirus: The Latest Court Closings

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Article courtesy of Law360. Updated April 1, 2020.

Notice the article does not expound on the closings or openings of administrative law courts across America. If you are defending a Medicare or Medicaid overpayment, tentative notice of overpayment, or other alleged penalties, you will, most likely, be in administrative court.

At least, here, in NC, the administrative courts are open for Motions. Physically, the courts are closed except for a clerk. No in-person hearings are being held. But emergency, telephonic hearings can be heard.

FEDERAL APPEALS COURTS


U.S. Supreme Court
The high court postponed oral arguments scheduled for this month’s session running March 23 to March 25 and March 30 to April 1. The court’s regularly scheduled order list will be posted on the court’s website at 9:30 a.m. March 23. Hard copies will not be released. Opinions will be issued by the court at 10 a.m. the same day.

The court closed to tourists on March 12 until further notice, but the building will remain open for official business.

The deadline to file any petition for a writ of certiorari due on or after March 19 is extended to 150 days from the date of the lower court judgment, order denying discretionary review or order denying a timely petition for rehearing. The court said it will generally grant motions for time extensions if parties have difficulties related to the coronavirus.

Federal Circuit Court of Appeals
All cases scheduled for argument during the April 2020 sitting will be conducted remotely and no in-person hearings will be held. All existing deadlines in cases are still in effect. All requirements to provide paper copies of documents submitted electronically are suspended for all documents filed on or after March 2 until further notice. Pro se parties are permitted to submit case-initiating documents by fax or email.

The public is prohibited from entering the National Courts Building complex unless preauthorized by court staff and only as necessary to conduct or support essential court functions, effective March 16. Those who have tested positive for the coronavirus or had possible exposure to the virus are prohibited from entering the courthouse.

D.C. Circuit Court of Appeals
The court of appeals for the D.C. Circuit has suspended all in-person onsite oral arguments until further notice.

The Court of Appeals for the D.C. Circuit is limiting access to its courthouse to “judges, court staff, members of the media, and visitors with official business with the courts,” effective Friday. The court asked that those who have tested positive for the coronavirus, have had contact with someone who has been exposed to the virus, been asked to self-quarantine or are experiencing flu-like symptoms not enter the courthouse. Pro se litigants may email filings to ProSeFilings@cadc.uscourts.gov as PDF files and should not send duplicate paper copies to the court.

First Circuit Court of Appeals
Oral arguments scheduled for the month of April are canceled.

Second Circuit Court of Appeals
All filing dates and other deadlines between March 16 and May 17 are extended by 21 days.

Those who do not have business with the court will not be admitted until further notice. Arguments may be conducted remotely.

Lawyers or pro se parties scheduled to argue before the court should contact the clerk of court if they: visited or have been in contact with someone who was in China, Iran, Italy, Japan or South Korea in the past two weeks, have been asked to self-quarantine, have tested positive for the coronavirus or have been in contact with someone who has tested positive, or if they have a verifiable health condition.

Third Circuit Court of Appeals
Oral arguments will continue as scheduled pending further order of the court. The merits panel will determine the manner of argument. Parties may file a motion requesting to appear by audio conference. The majority of staff in the clerk’s office will be working remotely. The three-day time limit for requesting extensions is relaxed until the clerk’s office resumes normal operations. The filing of paper copies of briefs and appendices is deferred until further notice.

The Third Circuit Judicial Conference scheduled for May 13-15 in Philadelphia has been canceled.

Fourth Circuit Court of Appeals
Cases previously scheduled for argument during the March 17-20 and April 7 argument sessions will be heard at a later session, heard remotely or submitted on the briefs, at the direction of the assigned panels. The court temporarily suspended its oral argument requirement for published opinions.

The Powell Courthouse in Richmond, Virginia, is closed to the public. Papers may be filed in the courthouse lobby, but those who have tested positive for the coronavirus, those with symptoms of COVID-19 and those who may have been exposed to the virus are prohibited from entering the building.

Fifth Circuit Court of Appeals
All requirements to file paper copies are suspended until further notice. Extensions with justification may be requested from the clerk’s office. All outstanding deadlines for incarcerated and nonincarcerated pro se filers are extended for 30 days after their due dates. The court canceled in-person oral arguments scheduled for March 30 to April 2 in New Orleans.

Sixth Circuit Court of Appeals
All nonessential court functions are postponed until further notice. Judges, parties, attorneys and some court staff are allowed to appear via video conference. The requirement that nonprisoner pro se litigants file exclusively in paper format is temporarily suspended until April 17.

Those who have tested positive for the coronavirus or come into contact with someone who has tested positive are barred from entering any courtroom. That restriction also applies to those who have been asked to self-quarantine, are exhibiting cold or flu symptoms, have visited Italy, Iran, China or South Korea in the past two weeks, or have had close contact with someone who has visited those countries in the past two weeks.

Seventh Circuit Court of Appeals
All cases scheduled for oral argument from March 30 through the end of April will be argued via telephone. The courtroom in Chicago will be closed to the public, and the court is operating with reduced staff. Arguments will be recorded and posted on the court’s website. If all parties agree among themselves to waive oral argument, they may jointly file a motion with the court seeking permission to do so.

Eighth Circuit Court of Appeals
The public is not being admitted to the Eighth Circuit Clerk’s Office. Those who come to the Burger Courthouse in St. Paul, Minnesota, or the Eagleton Courthouse in St. Louis to file may leave their documents at the front door to the office.

Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals
Ninth Circuit courthouses are closed to the public during noncourt weeks until further notice. The court is evaluating arguments currently scheduled for March, April and May and will give orders to the cases individually. Panels may exercise their discretion to submit cases without argument, postpone argument to a later date or hold argument via telephone or video. Arguments will be livestreamed for the public.

Tenth Circuit Court of Appeals
The Tenth Circuit closed its sole courthouse to the public from March 17 until further notice. The Denver courthouse will be restricted to judges, court staff, court security officers and service providers with official business with the court. All filings should be made electronically or via mail until further notice.

Eleventh Circuit Court of Appeals
In the Eleventh Circuit, only judges, court staff, members of the media and visitors with official business with the court will be allowed into the two Eleventh Circuit buildings. Paper filing requirements are temporarily waived. Panels can hear oral arguments remotely, and those hearings will be livestreamed for the public when feasible. Recordings of oral arguments will also be available on the court’s website. Anyone who is experiencing flu-like symptoms or who has had a known contact with a person who tested positive for the coronavirus will not be allowed inside.

The court has canceled its judicial conference, which had been scheduled for May 6 through May 9 in Atlanta.

FEDERAL DISTRICT COURTS AND STATE COURTS


Alabama
The Northern District of Alabama is prohibiting those who have tested positive for the coronavirus and those who may have been exposed to the virus from entering its courthouses. Also prohibited are those who have visited China, Italy, Japan, Iran or South Korea in the past two weeks.

In the Middle District of Alabama, no jurors will be summoned for civil or criminal jury trials for 30 days as of March 17. All jury trials and trial-specific deadlines scheduled during that period are postponed for 30 days, as are all grand jury proceedings. Initial appearances, arraignments and detention hearings before the magistrate judges will continue remotely. Any proceedings that can’t be conducted remotely will be coordinated with the duty magistrate judge. Case-by-case exceptions to the procedures may be ordered for nonjury matters at the discretion of the court after consultation with counsel.

All the Middle District’s bankruptcy court, hearings will be held by telephone through May 31

The Middle District is prohibiting those who have tested positive for the coronavirus and those who may have been exposed to the virus from entering its courthouses. Also prohibited are those who have visited China, Italy, Japan, Iran or South Korea in the past two weeks.

The Southern District of Alabama is prohibiting those who have tested positive for the coronavirus and those who may have been exposed to the virus from entering its courthouses. Also prohibited are those who have visited Europe, China, Italy, Iran or South Korea in the past two weeks.

In the state court system, all in-person court proceedings are suspended through April 16, with exceptions for jury trials in progress as of March 13 and other essential and emergency matters. Any court deadlines set to expire before April 16 are extended to April 20, excluding statutes of limitation.

Alaska
In the District of Alaska, all civil and criminal jury trials set to begin on or before May 1 are postponed until further notice. Trial-specific deadlines in civil and criminal cases set to begin before May 1 are postponed until further notice. All noncase-related activities scheduled in the James M. Fitzgerald U.S. Courthouse in Anchorage and the U.S. Courthouses in Fairbanks and Juneau are canceled until further notice. All grand jury proceedings scheduled to be held from Feb. 18 through May 1 are postponed. No hearings in bankruptcy appeals pending before the court scheduled from March 23 through May 1 will go forward, except for emergency time-sensitive matters.

In Alaska’s state court system, all Superior Court and District Court proceedings are suspended through April 3 except for certain priority hearings, including arraignments, felony first appearances and bail hearings. All trial court proceedings are suspended through May 1 except for certain priority hearings. Criminal jury trials are suspended through May 1, but trials underway as of March 23 may continue. Filing deadlines are extended to May 1 in suspended cases. The court is encouraging those with COVID-19 symptoms or possible exposure to the virus not to come to any state courthouses.

Arizona 
The District of Arizona has postponed all civil and criminal jury trials scheduled to begin on or before May 4 until further notice. All trial-specific deadlines in criminal cases scheduled to begin before May 4 are postponed until further notice, and judges may postpone deadlines for civil cases at their discretion. All grand juries that were scheduled to convene on or before April 17 are suspended. For those charged with felonies during this time, the period of time for presenting the case to the grand jury is extended 30 days from the indictment deadline. All court proceedings in the Tucson division through March 29 are postponed. Judges will conduct proceedings remotely where feasible. Noncase-related activities at courthouses in Phoenix, Tucson and Yuma, including naturalization ceremonies, are canceled until further notice.

The Flagstaff Courthouse will be closed to the public, except for necessary court appearances, through at least April 10. The public admitted to the courtroom will be limited to no more than two people in the public seating area at any time.

The court is asking those who recently traveled from an area with widespread COVID-19 — and those who are exhibiting symptoms of the disease — not to visit its courthouse.

In the state court system, no new petit juries will be empaneled through April 17.

Arkansas
In the Eastern District of Arkansas, all civil jury trials scheduled between March 18 and April 20 are canceled. All criminal jury trials scheduled to take place between March 23 and April 30 are postponed until further notice. All grand jury proceedings scheduled between March 18 and April 30 are postponed until further notice. Attorneys and parties must provide notice of potential exposure to the coronavirus. The court will use videoconferencing in preliminary criminal proceedings as needed. All large scale public events scheduled for March and April are postponed.

In the Western District of Arkansas, all civil and criminal bench and jury trials are postponed and will be rescheduled to a date after May 1. Other civil and criminal matters that can be resolved without oral argument or handled remotely are unaffected. Those who have tested positive for the coronavirus or may have been exposed to it are prohibited from entering any courthouse.

In the state court system, in-person proceedings in the appellate, Circuit and District courts are suspended until April 17. Exceptions include certain emergency, time-sensitive and other necessary proceedings. All summonses for people to participate in jury panels are suspended until May 1.

California
In the Southern District of California, civil and criminal jury trials are postponed until April 16. For the district’s bankruptcy court, all hearings will be conducted by telephone through April 16.

In the Eastern District of California, all civil and criminal jury trials are postponed until May 1. All courthouses are closed to the public. All civil matters will be decided on the papers or by remote hearings, if necessary. All criminal initial appearances, arraignments and other essential proceedings will proceed before magistrate judges unless the parties agree to postpone them. Proceedings should be conducted remotely when possible. District judges may postpone criminal matters to a date after May 1.

In the Central District of California, all courthouses are closed to the public through May 1, except for certain criminal hearings. Courthouse tours are canceled. No civil hearings will go forward, except for emergency time-sensitive matters. Any hearings on emergency civil matters will only proceed by telephone. All matters before the bankruptcy court will proceed by telephone.

In the Northern District of California, all civil and criminal jury trials are postponed until May 1. Anyone with symptoms should not appear in court. As of March 24, the San Jose courthouse was closed to both staff and the public until at least April 7 after a visitor was treated for COVID-19. All other district courthouses are closed to the general public until at least April 7. Essential courthouse operations for the Oakland, San Jose and Eureka/McKinleyville courthouses will be consolidated and relocated to the San Francisco courthouse until April 7.

The Central District and Eastern District of California are prohibiting anyone who visited China, South Korea, Japan, Italy or Iran in the past two weeks from entering any of their courthouses. The restriction also applies to those who have had close contact with someone who has visited those countries in the past two weeks, those who have tested positive for the coronavirus or have been in contact with someone who has tested positive, those who have been asked to self-quarantine and those experiencing fever, cough or shortness of breath.

The California Supreme Court suspended in-person oral argument sessions until further notice. Counsel will only appear remotely. All oral argument sessions will be held in the court’s San Francisco headquarters courtroom with limited seating. More information on California state court restrictions is available here.

Colorado
In the District of Colorado, all civil and criminal trials set to start from March 27 through May 1 are postponed. All grand jury proceedings are suspended through May 1. Hearings will be held remotely when possible. Only those with official court business are allowed to enter the district’s courthouses and probation offices. Those who have tested positive for the coronavirus or may have been exposed to it are prohibited from entering any courthouse.

In the state court system, all jury calls are suspended through April 3 except those for criminal trials facing imminent speedy trial deadlines.

Connecticut
The District of Connecticut said Wednesday that all civil and criminal jury trials and jury selections scheduled to start before April 10 are postponed until further notice. The courthouses will remain open for all other business. The clerk’s office is closed to the public until further notice, and all manual court filings can be made at a designated box in the entrance lobby of each courthouse.

The court is also prohibiting visitors who have been to China, South Korea, Japan, Italy, Iran, or any locale that is quarantined in the past two weeks. The court specified that those who have visited New Rochelle, New York — other than in a car or train — are also prohibited from visiting courthouses and probation offices.

All scheduled hearings and conferences in the district’s bankruptcy court will be conducted by telephone, unless the matter is withdrawn, resolved, postponed or the court determines the proceeding is not necessary.

In the state court system, all civil and criminal jury trials are suspended. The courts will only schedule and hear certain high-priority matters. The Connecticut Supreme Court postponed oral arguments in cases scheduled to have been heard between March 24 and April 2. The Supreme Court and Appellate Court have suspended the time requirements for all filings until further notice and have requested that no paper briefs be filed until further notice. On March 13, the court ruled that no appellate preargument conferences will be held for the next 30 days.

Delaware
In the District of Delaware, the J. Caleb Boggs U.S. Courthouse and Federal Building  in Wilmington is closed until further notice. All civil and criminal jury selections and trials scheduled to begin before April 30 are postponed until further notice. Sitting grand juries are authorized to continue to meet, but no new grand juries will be empaneled before April 30. All changes of plea, sentencings and supervised release violation hearings scheduled before April 30 are postponed unless otherwise ordered by the presiding judge.

Attorneys are asked to inform the appropriate court if they have appeared in court and have since developed symptoms or tested positive for the coronavirus and to inform the courts about any scheduled proceedings that will require the attendance of a person who has tested positive for coronavirus or has been in contact in the past 14 days with a person who has tested positive for coronavirus.

Also, the courts will conduct conferences and hearings by phone when possible and will consider any request to change a scheduled in-person proceeding to a telephone proceeding.

The Delaware Bankruptcy Court has halted all nontime-sensitive proceedings until at least April 15. Unless otherwise ordered by the presiding judge, all court hearings held prior to April 15 will be held via telephone or video conference.

In the Delaware Chancery Court, all hearings and trials will be conducted remotely for 30 days beginning March 16.

The Delaware Supreme Court canceled all in-person oral arguments through May.

All state trial courts will have the discretion to postpone for 30 days both civil and criminal trials and hearings. Proceedings will be conducted by telephone when possible and the court will consider all requests for in-person hearings to be conducted by phone. Attorneys and self-represented parties scheduled for trial must notify the court if the trial will require the attendance of a person who has tested positive for coronavirus or has been in contact in the past 14 days with a person who has tested positive for coronavirus.

Florida
In the Florida Southern District Court, all jury trials scheduled to begin March 16 through March 30 are postponed until further notice. All trial-specific deadlines in criminal cases scheduled to begin before March 30 are also postponed until further notice. All grand jury sessions are postponed until April 27.

Court security officers are screening people who enter the federal courthouse and denying entry to anyone who has recently visited Italy, Iran, South Korea or China. Anyone who resides with or has had recent close contact with someone who has traveled to one of those countries, has been asked to self-quarantine, has tested positive for the coronavirus or had contact with someone tested positive also will not be able to enter any of the federal courthouses in the district.

In the Middle District of Florida, those with symptoms of COVID-19 and those who may have been exposed to the coronavirus are prohibited from entering any courthouse. All jury trials in the Orlando Division scheduled to begin before June 30 are postponed, as are all trial-specific deadlines in criminal cases scheduled to begin before June 30.

In the Northern District of Florida, jury trials and grand jury proceedings have been canceled for the month of March, and naturalization ceremonies have been canceled for the months of March and April. Proceedings will be held remotely when possible.

In the state court system, the Florida Supreme Court ruled that all grand jury proceedings, jury selection proceedings, and criminal and civil jury trials are suspended through April 17. Proceedings that already began may continue if the presiding judge and chief judge determine it is required “by the interests of justice.” All time periods involving the speedy trial procedure in criminal and juvenile court proceedings are suspended through April 20. Time periods for those charged with first-degree murder are suspended through April 17. The chief judges of each state Circuit Court were ordered to cancel or postpone nonessential court proceedings, unless the proceedings can be conducted remotely.

Georgia
The Northern District of Georgia said Wednesday it is denying entry to anyone who has visited China, South Korea, Japan, Italy or Iran in the past two weeks. The restriction also applies to those who have had close contact with someone who has visited those countries in the past 14 days, has tested positive for the coronavirus, been in contact with someone who has tested positive or been asked to self-quarantine by any hospital or health agency. Those denied entry may appear by teleconference with approval of the presiding judge.

In the Middle District of Georgia, no jury trials will be held for 60 days. Grand juries are not affected by the moratorium. All criminal hearings are canceled through May 16 except for certain proceedings, including initial appearances, arraignments and detention hearings. Those who have tested positive for the coronavirus or may have been exposed to the virus are prohibited from entering any courthouse.

In the Southern District of Georgia, only those with official court business will be admitted into the courthouse. Those who have symptoms of COVID-19, have tested positive for the coronavirus or may have been exposed to the virus are prohibited from entering the building. Any jury trials between March 17 and April 17 may be postponed. Grand juries will continue to meet. Criminal matters before magistrate judges will continue to take place as usual.

In the Georgia Supreme Court, filing deadlines are suspended through April 13. After that, attorneys will have the same amount of time to file their documents that they had when the court order went into effect on March 14. The court encourages attorneys to file briefs and other documents where practical, since the court is still working on cases.

The Georgia Supreme Court asked all attorneys, parties and other visitors to stay away from the court if they have a fever or symptoms of respiratory illness or if they have been exposed to anyone tested positive for the coronavirus or has the flu.

Guam
In the District of Guam, all jury selections and trials set to begin before April 26 are postponed until further notice. Criminal matters before the magistrate judge will proceed as usual. All grand jury proceedings are postponed to April 26, but the U.S. attorney may schedule proceedings for emergency or essential matters. All sentencing and revocation hearings scheduled to be heard on or before April 3, and any related deadlines, are postponed until further notice.

The court and the U.S. District Pretrial and Probation Office are closed to the public from March 20 through April 3. All naturalization ceremonies and noncourt-related events scheduled for March and April are canceled. Those who have tested positive for the coronavirus, have symptoms or may have been exposed to the virus are prohibited from entering the district court.

Hawaii
In the District of Hawaii, all civil and criminal trials scheduled to start between March 17 and May 3 are postponed. All civil hearings, including settlement conferences, scheduled for that time period will either be conducted remotely or taken off the court’s calendar. Nonessential criminal matters will be postponed to a date after May 3, but the court will continue to conduct initial appearances, arraignments, detention hearings and other time-sensitive matters. The court is generally closed to the public, but there is limited seating for in-person hearings, available by request.

The court is prohibiting those who have visited China, Iran, Italy, Japan and South Korea within the past two weeks from entering the courthouse, as well as those who have had contact with someone who has been in those countries, tested positive for the coronavirus, been in contact with someone who has been exposed to the virus or have been asked to self-quarantine.

In the state court system, all ongoing trials will be postponed to a date after April 30, as will civil trials and hearings. Criminal trials, grand jury proceedings and hearings will be postponed to a date after April 30 to the extent possible. In the courts of appeal, all oral arguments scheduled before April 30 will be rescheduled or the matter resolved without oral argument. Those who have symptoms or may have been exposed to the coronavirus are prohibited from entering judiciary facilities.

In the state court system, all in-person appearances for civil and criminal dockets are excused, except for emergency matters, child protection hearings, domestic violence hearings and evidentiary hearings in criminal cases. The state Supreme Court ordered that all civil trials, hearings and motions should be postponed and rescheduled for a later date unless the assigned judge finds the proceedings can be held remotely. Any civil trial or hearing currently in progress shall be postponed or completed at the discretion of the presiding judge.

Idaho
In the District of Idaho, all jury trials scheduled to begin on or before May 11 are postponed until further notice. All grand jury proceedings set to begin before May 11 are suspended. No in-person bankruptcy or civil proceedings will take place until further notice. Various criminal hearings before district judges will be postponed until after May 11, and all preliminary felony and post-conviction proceedings conducted by a magistrate judge will be conducted remotely.

The federal courthouse in Pocatello was closed until April 6 after a person working in the building tested positive for the coronavirus. All in-person evidentiary hearings in civil, criminal and bankruptcy cases scheduled before any judge in the Pocatello courthouse are postponed.

Those with symptoms of COVID-19 and those who may have been exposed to the virus are prohibited from coming to court.

In the state court system, all in-person appearances for civil and criminal dockets are excused, except for emergency matters, child protection hearings, domestic violence hearings and evidentiary hearings in criminal cases. The state Supreme Court ordered that all civil trials, hearings and motions be postponed and rescheduled for a later date unless the assigned judge finds the proceedings can be held remotely. Any civil trial or hearing currently in progress shall be postponed or completed at the discretion of the presiding judge. All criminal jury trials scheduled to be heard from March 26 through April 30 are postponed for at least 30 days.

Illinois
In the Northern District of Illinois, all civil case deadlines are extended by 21 days. Civil case hearings, trials and settlement conferences scheduled from March 17 through April 3 are canceled and will be rescheduled by the presiding judge on or after April 6. All criminal case proceedings in any division that can’t be postponed will be conducted in the Eastern Division by district judges serving in emergency capacity.

The court is still accessible for electronic filing and phone and video conferencing in emergency situations.

The court said on March 12 that all civil jury trials and jury selections scheduled to start before April 3 are postponed until further notice. Second chance reentry court proceedings, veterans treatment court proceedings and non-telephone settlement conferences scheduled before April 3 are also postponed. The courthouses will remain open for all other business, including criminal case proceedings, and grand juries will continue to meet.

The court suspended all mass public gatherings outside of court proceedings at the federal courthouses in Chicago and Rockford, Illinois, and limited deliveries to the court. Judges are encouraged to conduct proceedings by phone or video conference where practicable.

In the Central District of Illinois, all civil and criminal jury trials scheduled to begin before May 18 are postponed and will be rescheduled by the presiding judge. All petty offense proceedings are postponed and will be rescheduled by the presiding judge. All civil hearings, including settlement conferences, should be conducted by telephone or video conference. Criminal sentencing hearings and hearings on the revocation of supervised release are postponed until after May 18. Those who have symptoms or may have been exposed to the virus should contact the court before appearing.

In the Southern District of Illinois, all in-person civil matters are postponed until further notice. All civil case deadlines are extended by 30 days. Grand jury proceedings are unaffected. Only essential in-person criminal matters will occur. Any emergency hearing required before April 7 in a criminal case will be held remotely. Those who have tested positive for the coronavirus or may have been exposed to the virus are prohibited from visiting the courthouse. All scheduled bankruptcy hearings will be held by telephone.

For the Cook County Circuit Court, all matters are postponed for 30 days from their originally scheduled date, but some proceedings will continue, including certain criminal matters, juvenile detention hearings, temporary custody hearings and mental health hearings, among others. Discovery in civil matters will continue, and emergency civil hearings may be conducted in-person or remotely.

Indiana
In the Southern District of Indiana, all jury trials are postponed through May 1. All other civil court proceedings will continue, although they may be done remotely at the judge’s discretion. Naturalization ceremonies through May 1 are canceled. Those with symptoms and those who may have been exposed to the coronavirus are prohibited from visiting courthouses.

The Indianapolis Division, Terre Haute Division and New Albany Division are closed to the public as of March 18.

In the Northern District of Indiana, the Fort Wayne, Hammond, Lafayette and South Bend divisions, as well as the district’s bankruptcy court and probation office, are closed to the public. The court will conduct necessary proceedings remotely as ordered by the presiding judge in each case. Necessary criminal proceedings will continue to be held before magistrate judges unless the parties agree to postpone them. Those proceedings will be conducted remotely as much as possible.

The Indiana Supreme Court has tolled all deadlines for appellate filings through April 6. Various matters in the Circuit, Superior and Municipal courts have been tolled, including all laws and procedures setting time limits for speedy trials in criminal and juvenile proceedings; public health, mental health and appellate matters; judgments and other orders; and statutes of limitation. Those restrictions apply to the Indiana Tax Court as well.

Iowa
In the Northern District of Iowa, those who have tested positive for the coronavirus are prohibited from entering the courthouse, as are those who have been asked to self-quarantine, those experiencing symptoms and those who may have been exposed to the virus.

In the Southern District of Iowa, all civil and criminal jury trials set from March 16 to May 4 are postponed until further notice. Any further grand jury proceedings for the month of March are canceled.

In the state court system, any criminal trial that is not in progress is postponed and will be rescheduled for after April 20. All civil jury trials that haven’t started as of March 13 but were scheduled to begin before May 4 are postponed. All civil bench trials and other hearings set to start before May 4 are postponed until May 4 at the earliest or should be conducted by telephone, at the discretion of the judge. As of March 17, statutes of limitation for filing an action in district court are extended by 48 days.

The Iowa Supreme Court ordered that attorneys and parties notify their opposing counsel and appropriate clerk of court’s office if they suspect a participant in any proceeding has an elevated risk of transmitting the novel coronavirus. No one who has an elevated risk can attend any state court proceeding in person without court authorization. Attorneys must also ask their clients and witnesses whether they have an elevated risk of transmission, the order said.

Potential state court jurors must notify the jury manager if they have an elevated risk of transmitting coronavirus, and the jury manager must reschedule them to a new service term. The court said it will also promptly consider requests from parties to change in-person proceedings to remote proceedings.

Kansas
In the District of Kansas, all criminal cases and matters scheduled for nonemergency hearings are postponed until further notice. Grand jury proceedings are postponed for at least 30 days. Those who have tested positive for the coronavirus, have symptoms or were potentially exposed to the virus are prohibited from coming to court.

In the state court system, all civil and criminal jury trials scheduled to begin on or after March 18 are postponed until further notice. Trials in progress as of March 18 may continue to conclusion at the discretion of the presiding judge. All district and appellate courts will be restricted to emergency operations until further notice.

Kentucky
In the Eastern District of Kentucky, civil and criminal trials scheduled to begin on or before May 1 are postponed for at least 30 days. Grand jury proceedings will continue.

All currently scheduled hearings in criminal cases and in-person hearings in civil cases scheduled on or before May 1 are postponed, with some exceptions for emergency matters. All hearings in emergency matters will be conducted remotely “absent exceptional circumstances,” according to a district order.

In the Western District of Kentucky, civil and criminal trials scheduled to begin before April 17 are postponed for at least 30 days. All trials in progress will be completed at the discretion of the presiding judge. With certain exceptions, grand jury proceedings are also postponed.

In the state court system, all in-person appearances for civil and criminal dockets are canceled through April 24 except for emergency and time-sensitive matters. All scheduled civil trials, hearings and motions are postponed, and any civil trial or hearing currently in progress will be postponed or completed at the discretion of the presiding judge.

Louisiana
In the Eastern District of Louisiana, all civil and criminal bench and jury trials are postponed until May 1 and will be rescheduled by each presiding judge. The postponements do not include deadlines other than the trial dates. Civil and criminal in-person hearings scheduled before May 1 are postponed. All grand jury proceedings are suspended until May 1. The clerk’s office will not accept sealed paper documents for filing through May 1. All noncase-specific events, including naturalization ceremonies, scheduled before May 1 are canceled and will be rescheduled later.

The court is prohibiting those who have traveled to China, South Korea, Japan, Iran or Italy in the past two weeks from entering the New Orleans courthouse. The restriction also applies to those who have had close contact with someone who recently traveled to those countries, those who have tested positive for the coronavirus, those who have come into contact with someone who has tested positive, those who have been asked to self-quarantine and those with symptoms of COVID-19.

In the Middle District of Louisiana, all criminal and civil trials are postponed until at least May 1. All in-person civil hearings scheduled through April 10 are postponed and will be rescheduled by the presiding judge. All grand jury proceedings are postponed until further notice. Criminal matters before magistrate judges will take place remotely or in-person. Rearraignments and sentencing hearings scheduled before April 10 are postponed. Statute of limitations deadlines are interrupted until April 13. No in-person filings will be accepted before April 13. Those who have tested positive for the coronavirus, have symptoms or may have been exposed to the virus are prohibited from the courthouses.

In the Western District of Louisiana, all jury trials set to begin before May 1 are postponed and will be rescheduled by each presiding judge. Grand jury proceedings will continue. Judges may hold in-person hearings, and parties are encouraged to participate in nonsentencing hearings remotely. Noncase-related events scheduled through May 1, including naturalization ceremonies, are canceled. Those who have tested positive for the coronavirus, have symptoms or may have been exposed to the virus are prohibited from courthouses.

Public access to the Louisiana Western District Clerk of Court Offices in the Alexandria, Lafayette, Lake Charles, Monroe and Shreveport divisions is suspended. Any court filings may be time-stamped and placed in the drop box located in each division.

For state courts, all legal deadlines are suspended until at least April 13. All jury trials scheduled to start before April 13 are postponed until at least April 14. All civil trials, hearings and court appearances scheduled before April 13 are postponed, except for certain emergency proceedings. Essential court functions will be conducted remotely when possible.

Maine
In the District of Maine, all jury selections and jury trials set to begin before any district or magistrate judge are postponed until further notice. All grand jury proceedings are also postponed until further notice.

Public access to scheduled hearings will be permitted only with the prior permission of the presiding judge. The clerk’s office will be open by appointment only. In-person court proceedings are limited to, among other things, certain criminal matters; the issuance of search warrants; motions seeking immediate, emergency relief; and essential administrative functions.

In the state court system, the courts will schedule and hear only certain proceedings, including arraignments and first appearances of defendants held in custody; requests and hearings related to protection from abuse; child protection petitions and hearings; and hearings granted on motion. Other proceedings will not be scheduled or heard before May 1, and all previously scheduled cases are postponed.

Maryland
The District of Maryland has postponed until further notice all civil and criminal jury selections scheduled to begin before April 24. All nonemergency proceedings are postponed through April 24, and all filing deadlines between March 16 and April 24 are extended by six weeks. The court will remain open for emergency criminal, civil, and bankruptcy matters related to public safety, public health and welfare, and individual liberty. All misdemeanor, traffic and petty offense proceedings scheduled through May 31 are postponed until further notice.

As of March 31, all in-court proceedings will be heard on Mondays, Wednesdays or Fridays unless a presiding judge orders otherwise. Emergency proceedings may be heard on Tuesdays or Thursdays when necessary.

As of March 27, the requirement to deliver paper courtesy copies to the clerk’s office is temporarily suspended, unless otherwise ordered by a presiding judge.

All in-court proceedings in the Southern Division U.S. Courthouse in Greenbelt, Maryland, are suspended until further notice. All emergency matters in the Southern Division will be heard in the U.S. Courthouse in Baltimore.

Courthouse access is limited to litigants with scheduled proceedings, counsel, investigators or employees of counsel and credentialed press. The court is also prohibiting those who have visited China, Iran, Italy, Japan, South Korea, Egypt, Washington State and New Rochelle, New York, within the past two weeks from entering the courthouse, as well as those who have had contact with someone who has been in those areas, tested positive for the coronavirus, been in contact with someone who has tested positive or have been asked to self-quarantine.

On the state side, the Court of Appeals has ordered that all courts in the Maryland Judiciary, court offices, administrative offices, units of the judiciary, and clerk’s offices of the Circuit Courts are closed to the public on an emergency basis, effective March 16. Certain matters scheduled to be heard between March 16 through April 3 are postponed until further notice.

Massachusetts
The Massachusetts District Court announced that while the courthouses in Boston, Worcester and Springfield will remain open, all jury trials scheduled to begin before April 27 are postponed until further notice.

The court said that while trial-specific deadlines before April 27 in criminal cases are also postponed, judges can delay trial-specific deadlines for civil cases at their own discretion. Individual judges can continue to hold hearings, conferences and bench trials if they want, but the court is encouraging them to do so by telephone or video conference.

The court will continue to hold criminal proceedings involving personal liberty or public safety issues. Other criminal proceedings will be postponed 60 days as of March 16 with exceptions for certain proceedings, including initial appearances, detention hearings and arraignments. Those proceedings may be conducted remotely when feasible. Pretrial deadlines are also extended by 60 days. Grand jury proceedings are postponed until April 27.

The court is prohibiting visitors who recently traveled to China, Italy, Japan, Iran and South Korea from entering any courthouse or probation office in the district. Those who have had close contact with someone who visited those countries — as well as those who have symptoms of COVID-19, have tested positive for the virus or have been instructed by a doctor to self-quarantine — are also prohibited from visiting.

In the state court system, the only in-person proceedings that will be held in state courthouses through at least April 6 are emergency matters that can’t be handled remotely. Only essential parties can enter courthouses, and only up to three members of the news media will be allowed in for an emergency in-person proceeding. All civil and criminal jury and bench trials scheduled to begin before April 17 are postponed until at least April 21, unless the proceeding is a civil bench trial that can be conducted remotely. All statutes of limitation are tolled through April 21. Those who have tested positive for the coronavirus, have symptoms or may have been exposed to the virus are prohibited from entering any state courthouse.

The state appeals court has ordered that all cases scheduled for oral argument during the remainder of March will be held by telephone.

Michigan
The Eastern District of Michigan is prohibiting people who have visited China, South Korea, Italy and Iran in the last two weeks from entering any district courthouse until further notice. All civil and criminal matters scheduled for in-person appearances are postponed until further notice, as are grand jury proceedings. Case-by-case exceptions to postponements may be ordered for nonjury matters. Criminal matters before magistrate judges will continue to take place as usual.

The Theodore Levin U.S. Courthouse in Detroit closed to the public on March 25, and will remain closed to the public until the building owner can clean the courthouse according to federal guidelines. The district announced on March 27 that 10 court security officers showed COVID-19 symptoms, four were hospitalized, and two tested positive for the virus.

In the Western District of Michigan, judges will handle matters remotely as much as possible. All facilities in the district are closed to public access through April 13, except for the Ford Building in Grand Rapids and the Marquette Facility. Those facilities will be open by appointment only.

The district is also prohibiting: those who have had close contact with someone who has visited those four countries, have recently traveled to U.S. areas with widespread community transmission of the coronavirus, have been asked to self-quarantine, have tested positive for  the virus or who exhibit the symptoms of COVID-19.

In the state court system, trial courts are limiting courtroom access to no more than 10 people at a time, including staff. The courts are practicing social distancing and limiting court activity to essential functions. All criminal jury trials are adjourned until after April 3. Most civil and business court matters, including trials, will be conducted remotely or adjourned until after April 3.

Minnesota
All criminal and grand jury proceedings are postponed until April 16. All jury trials are postponed through April 27, as are trial-specific deadlines. The clerk’s office intake desks will not accept cash payments, and the requirement that the filing party provide courtesy copies to the judge hearing the motion is suspended through April 27. The clerk’s office intake desks in Minneapolis, St. Paul, Duluth and Fergus Falls are closed to the public until further notice.

Video conferencing and telephone conferencing are allowed for several types of proceedings, including detention hearings, initial appearances, arraignments, felony pleas and felony sentencings.

The District of Minnesota is prohibiting those who have visited China, Iran, Italy and South Korea within the past two weeks from entering the courthouse, as well as those who have had contact with someone who has been in those countries, tested positive for the coronavirus, been in contact with someone who has tested positive or been asked to self-quarantine.

In the state court system, appellate courts can grant extensions for deadlines to initiate appeals or requests for review up to 30 days. The appellate courts may determine for any case that oral argument is unnecessary. In district courts, trials that have started as of March 13 will continue unless there is a need to suspend them. No new jury trials will begin before April 22 or until further order of the Minnesota Supreme Court. Public access to courtrooms will be limited.

Mississippi
In the Northern District of Mississippi, all proceedings should be conducted remotely where possible. For petty offenses, the hearing dates set to address misdemeanor citations in April and May will be continued until June and July, respectively. The cases set for the March hearing date will be disposed of at the discretion of the presiding judge. Public access to courthouses is limited to essential business.

In the Southern District of Mississippi, all nonessential matters set for hearing or trial through March 31 are postponed until further notice. Those who have symptoms or have tested positive for the coronavirus must notify the judge and counsel involved if they intend to come to court.

In the state court system, courts are limiting in-person contact through remote proceedings. When remote proceedings are not feasible, the court will conduct certain in-person proceedings, including jury trials currently in progress, emergency child protection matters, and other emergency and time-sensitive matters. Those who have tested positive for the coronavirus, have symptoms or may have been exposed to the virus are prohibited from entering state courts.

Missouri
In the Eastern District of Missouri, all civil and criminal jury trials scheduled to begin before May 31 are postponed. Proceedings should be held remotely where possible. In-person proceedings that a presiding judge determines are nonessential will be postponed until further notice. Naturalizations are postponed through April 6.

Those who have tested positive for the coronavirus, have symptoms or may have been exposed to the virus are prohibited from visiting any courthouse. All requirements related to in-person participation in alternative dispute resolution are suspended until May 31.

In the Western District of Missouri, all civil and criminal jury trials and grand juries are postponed through March 29, and trial-specific deadlines are postponed through the same date. All nonemergency criminal and civil hearings are postponed through March 29. Criminal matters before magistrate judges will continue to take place. Bankruptcy hearings and trials through March 29 will be held remotely or postponed.

In the state court system, all in-person proceedings are suspended through April 17, except for certain emergency and essential proceedings. Judges in each Circuit and appellate court will determine how the in-person proceedings are carried out.

Montana
In the District of Montana, all jury trials set to begin on or before May 1 are vacated, to be reset by order of the presiding judge. The order does not vacate any pending deadlines other than trial dates and final pretrial conferences. Grand jury proceedings are also vacated through May 1. Individual judges may hold nontrial proceedings in-person or remotely at their discretion. Group tours, attorney admission ceremonies and naturalization ceremonies are canceled through May 1. Continuance of creditors meetings in bankruptcy court will be suspended through April 16. Section 341 meetings will be postponed or conducted remotely. The court will not accept cash payments until further notice.

In the state court system, the Montana Supreme Court recommended that judges in district courts, the Montana Water Court and courts of limited jurisdiction reset civil jury matters through April 30 at the earliest. Judges should conduct necessary matters remotely whenever possible, the Supreme Court recommended. Priority must be given to necessary work in criminal matters, requests for orders of protection, and child abuse and neglect proceedings, the court said.

Nebraska
All jury trials set to begin in March are postponed until further notice, as are all grand jury proceedings scheduled for the month of March. The District of Nebraska has ordered that those who have recently visited China, South Korea, Japan, Italy or Iran should not attend in-person proceedings without court authorization.

The restriction also applies to those who have had contact with someone who has been in those countries, have tested positive for the coronavirus, been in contact with someone who has tested positive, have been asked to self-quarantine or exhibit symptoms of an infectious respiratory illness.

Nevada
In the District of Nevada, all trials and their associated deadlines are postponed until April 10. All noncase events are postponed. Naturalization ceremonies through March are postponed. The court is trying to conduct hearings remotely whenever possible. The clerk’s office is closed to the public as of March 20, but all filing deadlines are still in effect unless otherwise ordered by the presiding judge.

Those who have tested positive for the coronavirus, may have been exposed to it or show symptoms of COVID-19 are prohibited from visiting any courthouse.

In the district’s bankruptcy court, all hearings will be conducted remotely.

In the state court system, the Nevada Supreme Court and appellate courts have postponed all oral arguments until further notice.

New Hampshire
The New Hampshire District Court has postponed all civil and criminal jury trials scheduled to begin before May 1 and all grand jury proceedings scheduled before May 1. All criminal hearings scheduled before April 13 are postponed. All civil hearings and conferences scheduled to occur after March 20 will be conducted remotely. The court will conduct in-person hearings at the Rudman Courthouse in Concord on Tuesdays and Thursdays, with certain restrictions regarding the number of people who can be in a courtroom.

The court has also canceled all naturalization events that were scheduled before May 1.

Prospective jurors experiencing any flu-like symptoms, coughing, sneezing or fever should contact the district court before appearing. The court said it will make reasonable accommodations and reschedule appearances and hearings as needed.

In the state court system, all in-person proceedings in the Circuit, Superior and Supreme courts are suspended through April 6. Exceptions include certain emergency and essential proceedings.

New Jersey
For the New Jersey District Court, all civil and criminal jury selections and trials scheduled to begin before April 30 are postponed until further notice. Judges can continue to hold proceedings at their discretion and are encouraged to conduct proceedings remotely. No new grand juries will be empaneled before April 30, but sitting grand juries may continue to meet. Those who have tested positive for the coronavirus, have symptoms or may have been exposed to the virus are prohibited from entering any district courthouse.

Both district courthouses in Newark were closed from March 26 through April 6 after several employees tested positive for the coronavirus. No one is permitted to enter the buildings during the closure except for authorized cleaning staff.

For New Jersey state courts, new jury trials are suspended until further notice. Proceedings will be conducted remotely where possible. Time constraints for discovery will be relaxed and extended from March 16 through March 30. Pending motions will be subject to telephone conferencing as of March 18. All municipal court sessions are suspended through March 27.

Schedules for nonjury proceedings such as landlord-tenant and small claims hearings will be staggered to prevent large groups of people from gathering in a confined area. Out-of-state travel has been suspended for staffers, and nonessential court events like student tours have been canceled.

New Mexico
The District of New Mexico postponed all civil and criminal jury trials set to begin on or before April 10 until further notice. It also postponed all trial-specific deadlines in criminal cases scheduled to begin before April 10. All grand jury proceedings are postponed until further notice.

In the state court system, no more than 15 people will be allowed in each courtroom. Judges must conduct civil and criminal proceedings remotely except when an emergency requires an in-person appearance. Civil and criminal jury trials that have not started yet are suspended, and payment deadlines for fines and fees between March 19 and May 29 are extended by 30 days.

New York
The Southern District of New York has postponed until further notice all civil and criminal jury trials that were scheduled to begin before April 27. While case-related activities and naturalizations will continue, other noncase activities such as Continuing Legal Education events and school visits are canceled until further notice. All bankruptcy hearings and conferences scheduled to be held in the courthouses of the Manhattan Division, White Plains Division and Poughkeepsie Division of the bankruptcy court will be conducted by telephone unless the presiding judge decides otherwise.

The court urges= counsel to check individual judges’ webpages for possible orders, including orders extending time in civil matters and adjourning conferences.

The Thurgood Marshall Courthouse in Manhattan is closed for all district activities, except grand jury matters, through at least April 11. The Daniel Patrick Moynihan Courthouse in Manhattan is open only for certain urgent matters.

The Southern District is prohibiting those who have visited China, Italy, Iran, Japan or South Korea along with a slew of European countries, according to signs posted at courthouse entrances on March 12. The Eruropean countries are Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Vatican City, Iceland, Liechtenstein, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Monaco, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden, Switzerland, San Marino and Spain.

The court is also barring those with a fever, cough or shortness of breath, and the executive office in that district will not be issuing new attorney service passes until further notice. Access to courthouses is restricted to certain groups, including those with official court business, courthouse employees, certain contractors, mail carriers, law enforcement, credentialed press, family members of criminal defendants and jurors in ongoing trials.

In bankruptcy court, debtors with Chapter 13 cases before Chief Judge Cecelia G. Morris and Judge Sean H. Lane are waived from in-person court appearances. Attorneys and unrepresented debtors who are showing signs of illness must adjourn their cases. The contact for Judge Morris is Vanessa Ashmeade, (845) 451-6367. The contact for Judge Lane is Arturo Tavarez at (914) 467-7094.

The Eastern District of New York has postponed until further notice all civil and criminal jury trials that were scheduled to begin before April 27. All naturalization ceremonies are suspended for 45 days, as of March 16. All petty offense proceedings scheduled to begin before April 27 are postponed until further notice. In-person attorney admission ceremonies at all courthouses are suspended until further notice. For all criminal matters that had preliminary hearings before magistrate judges scheduled for March 18 through April 27, preliminary hearing deadlines are extended 60 days after the initial appearance.

The district is allowing video or telephone conferencing for several types of proceedings, including detention hearings, initial appearances and arraignments.

Access to court buildings is restricted to “those whose presence is essential,” according to an order. The court is prohibiting those who have traveled to China, Italy, Iran, Japan or South Korea and a slew of European countries in the past two weeks. Also prohibited are those who have come into close contact with anyone who has traveled to those countries within the past two weeks, have been asked to self-quarantine, tested positive for the coronavirus or have come into contact with someone who has tested positive.

In the Northern District of New York, all civil and criminal jury selections and trials — including for grand juries — scheduled to begin through April 30 are postponed until further notice. Other criminal matters before magistrate judges will continue to take place as usual. All mass public gatherings, including naturalization ceremonies, are suspended. Those who have tested positive for the coronavirus, have symptoms or may have been exposed to the virus are prohibited from entering any courthouse.

In the Western District of New York, all civil jury trials and grand jury selections are postponed for 60 days as of March 16. The court encouraged judges to reduce personal appearances for all other proceedings as much as they can. No naturalization ceremonies will be conducted for 60 days as of March 16. Those who have tested positive for the coronavirus, have symptoms or may have been exposed to the virus are prohibited from entering any courthouse.

For state courts, new civil and criminal jury trials will be suspended starting on March 16. Jury selection will also be halted, and grand juries will not be empaneled “absent exceptional circumstances,” although current grand juries will remain on duty along with some trial jurors. An executive order from Gov. Andrew Cuomo tolled all proceeding deadlines through April 19. No nonessential filings, paper or electronic, will be accepted by the courts until further notice. New York City Criminal Court will start holding proceedings through videoconferencing on March 25 and New York City Family Court will start holding remote proceedings on March 26.

New York state announced on March 11 that it is prohibiting anyone who has traveled to China, South Korea, Japan, Italy or Iran in the past 14 days from its 350 state-run courthouses.

Also banned from state courts are people who live with or have come into close contact with anyone who has been in one of those countries during that period, been asked to self-quarantine, and those who have either tested positive for the coronavirus or come into contact with someone who has tested positive.

The U.S. Court of International Trade in Manhattan is prohibiting entry to those who have visited China, Italy, Iran or South Korea in the past two weeks, as well as those who have been asked to self-quarantine. The restriction also applies to those who have tested positive for the coronavirus or have come into close contact with someone who has tested positive. The court is allowing teleconferencing and video conferencing with the approval of a presiding judge.

North Carolina
In the Eastern District of North Carolina, all civil and criminal jury trials set to begin on or before May 1 are postponed until further notice. All other hearings are subject to the presiding judge’s discretion. Grand jury proceedings will continue as usual, until further notice. Parties are encouraged to participate in proceedings remotely. Noncase events scheduled before May 1 are canceled. Those who have tested positive for the coronavirus, have symptoms of COVID-19 or may have been exposed to the virus are prohibited from visiting any courthouse without permission from the chief judge.

In the Middle District of North Carolina, all civil trials scheduled to begin before April 16 are postponed until further notice. All criminal cases are postponed to a date on or after April 16. Grand jury proceedings scheduled for March are canceled. Only those with official business are permitted to enter the district’s courthouses unless they have prior permission from the chief judge. Those who have tested positive for the coronavirus, have symptoms, or may have been exposed to the virus are prohibited from visiting any courthouse without permission from the chief judge.

In the Western District of North Carolina, judges are staggering their hearings, and hearings will be held in the largest courtroom available. Nonevidentiary hearings should be conducted remotely where possible.

In the state court system, the filing deadlines for documents previously due between March 16 and April 17 are extended to the end of the day on April 17. The order does not apply to the appellate courts. All civil and criminal District and Superior Court matters are postponed unless they are essential for constitutional or public safety reasons.

North Dakota
In the District of North Dakota, all jury trials scheduled before April 10 are postponed, as are trial-specific deadlines. Trial-specific deadlines in civil cases remain but may be postponed by individual judges. Criminal matters before magistrate judges will take place as usual. Grand jury proceedings scheduled through April 21 are postponed.

The North Dakota Supreme Court suspended all state jury trials until after April 24, but state courts are holding nonjury proceedings to the extent possible.

Northern Mariana Islands
In the District of the Northern Mariana Islands, all scheduled civil and criminal jury selections and trials are postponed until further notice. All grand jury proceedings are postponed unless otherwise ordered by the chief judge. The schedule for all other civil and criminal hearings will be determined on a case-by-case basis by the presiding judge. All noncase proceedings, including naturalization ceremonies, are postponed. Those who have tested positive for the coronavirus, have symptoms or may have been exposed to the virus are prohibited from entering the courthouse.

Ohio
In the Southern District of Ohio, certain in-court proceedings will continue but on a limited basis. The court will not have additional jury trials for 30 days beginning March 17. Proceedings that don’t require in-person meetings will continue at the discretion of each judge. Naturalization ceremonies are postponed until at least April 13.

In the Northern District of Ohio, all civil jury trials, reentry court proceedings and petty offense proceedings scheduled to begin before May 1 are postponed until further notice. Criminal trials will not proceed unless absolutely necessary, and grand juries will not meet unless absolutely necessary. Judges may conduct pretrial proceedings remotely where practical. All mass public gatherings, including naturalization ceremonies, are suspended until at least May 1. All courthouses in the district are closed to the public until May 1. Cash payments will not be accepted in the court until May 1.

The Ohio Supreme Court has provided guidance for state courts, including waiving appearances for pretrial hearings and using video conferencing or other technology to conduct proceedings including arraignments, hearings, pretrial hearings and probation meetings.

Oklahoma
In the Northern District of Oklahoma, all civil and criminal matters scheduled for in-court appearances are postponed until further notice, as are their related deadlines. All grand jury proceedings are postponed until further notice. Case-by-case exceptions to nonjury matters may be ordered. Civil and criminal motions that can be resolved without oral argument are unaffected.

In the Western District of Oklahoma, jury trials on the April docket are postponed. The presiding judge will address trial-related deadlines. Three grand jury sessions scheduled for March and April are canceled.

In the Eastern District of Oklahoma, all jury trials, grand jury sessions and naturalization ceremonies scheduled to start on or before April 17 in the Ed Edmondson Federal Courthouse in Muskogee are postponed. Those who have COVID-19 symptoms, have tested positive for the coronavirus or may have been exposed to the virus are prohibited from entering the courthouse.

On the state side, the Oklahoma Supreme Court and Court of Criminal Appeals ordered on March 16 that all state courts cancel all jury terms for 30 days and release jurors from service. All deadlines in any civil, criminal and juvenile cases are also suspended for 30 days. The statute of limitations is extended by 30 days in all civil cases, and judges will handle emergency matters and required proceedings on a case-by-case basis. Those who have tested positive for the coronavirus, have symptoms or may have been exposed to the virus are prohibited from entering any courtroom or other facility used by the state courts.

Oregon
In the District of Oregon, civil and criminal jury selections and trials scheduled to begin before April 26 are postponed until further notice. All grand jury proceedings scheduled before that date are postponed. All other civil and criminal matters scheduled for an in-court appearance before April 26 are postponed unless they can be resolved remotely or without oral argument. The District Clerk’s Office is closed to the public in all locations but available by phone. Filings will be processed electronically and by mail.

In the state court system, trials and hearings scheduled to start between March 19 and March 27 are postponed, with limited exceptions. The Oregon Court of Appeals has canceled oral arguments scheduled between March 17 and March 27. Trial courts throughout the state are reducing the number of people summoned as jurors. Potential jurors who are in high-risk categories for severe illness can contact the court to reschedule their jury service.

Pennsylvania
In the Eastern District of Pennsylvania, all civil and criminal jury trials and grand jury selections are postponed until April 13.

In the Western District of Pennsylvania, all civil and criminal jury trials and grand jury selections are postponed until April 26.

In the Middle District of Pennsylvania, all hearings and proceedings in civil and criminal cases are postponed for 60 days as of March 13, with exceptions for certain individual cases.

The Supreme Court of Pennsylvania ordered all trial and intermediate appellate courts, with exceptions for certain essential functions, to close their doors entirely through April 3 at the earliest. The state Supreme Court’s argument session scheduled for April 20 through April 22 is canceled, and cases listed for that session will be decided on the briefs.

Puerto Rico
In the District of Puerto Rico, all civil and criminal nonjury trials, hearings and conferences are postponed until further notice, but certain ongoing trials will continue. Grand jury proceedings will continue as scheduled. All deadlines set from March 16 through April 9 are extended until April 10.

The bankruptcy court will not be open to the public through March 30. All hearings scheduled from March 16 through March 30 are postponed and will be rescheduled individually.

Rhode Island
In the District of Rhode Island, the courthouse building at One Exchange Terrace, Providence, is closed to the public until further notice. The court operations in the John O. Pastore Building in Providence will be closed Tuesdays and Thursdays and will be open for limited purposes only on Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays. The presiding judge’s case manager will cancel all in-person civil matters and arrange remote hearings where possible. All grand jury proceedings and ongoing criminal hearings are postponed unless the person’s liberty interests are involved.

Those who are required to appear in Rhode Island’s district court, including those who are called as jurors, must contact the court before appearing if they are experiencing any flu-like symptoms. Those who have traveled to China, Italy, Iran and South Korea in the past two weeks are prohibited from entering the courthouse, as are those who may have been exposed to the virus.

In the state court system, all Superior Court jury trials are postponed until after April 17. All Superior Court grand jury proceedings are suspended until after April 17. All other matters in the state courts are postponed until after April 17 except for emergency and essential matters. All payment dates and filing deadlines are extended for 30 days as of March 17. The courts will entertain requests for extensions to statutes of limitation after the 30 days if they arise from the current health crisis.

South Carolina
In the District of South Carolina, all civil and criminal jury selections and trials scheduled to start through May 8 are postponed until further notice. All grand jury proceedings scheduled through May 8 are postponed unless otherwise noted by the chief judge. In all civil cases, deadlines are extended 21 days, but statutes of limitation are not tolled. All other civil and criminal matters scheduled for an in-court appearance before May 8 and their associated deadlines are postponed, unless the matter can be resolved remotely.

In the state court system, all oral arguments scheduled before appellate courts as of March 20 are canceled until further notice. Parties do not need to file additional document copies with the South Carolina Supreme Court or the Court of Appeals. In the Circuit Courts, only emergency hearings shall be held at the discretion of each chief administrative judge. All jury trials are postponed, and all large gatherings are canceled until further notice. Hearings that can be held by video may be held remotely.

South Dakota
In the District of South Dakota, all civil and criminal jury trials scheduled to begin on or before April 24 are postponed until further notice. Nonjury matters will proceed as scheduled unless otherwise ordered by the presiding judge, and parties are encouraged to participate remotely where possible. All grand jury proceedings scheduled before April 24 are postponed until further notice.

The South Dakota Supreme Court declared a judicial emergency and authorized the presiding judges of the state’s seven judicial circuits to adopt rules and orders regarding court operations. Each circuit put forward policies to address requests from high-risk individuals to be excused from in-person court appearances.

Tennessee
In the Eastern District of Tennessee, civil and criminal jury trials set to begin on or before April 24 are postponed. Cases not scheduled for a trial will proceed as scheduled, but oral proceedings will be conducted remotely where possible. Grand jury proceedings in Greeneville and Chattanooga are suspended through April 24. All misdemeanor, petty offense and traffic dockets scheduled through April 24 are postponed. Tours and naturalization ceremonies are canceled until further notice.

In the Western District of Tennessee, all civil judicial proceedings currently scheduled are postponed until after April 17. Criminal proceedings that don’t require in-person appearances are postponed until after April 17. All civil and criminal jury selections and trials scheduled to begin on or before April 17 are postponed until further notice. All grand juries already selected will not meet until after April 17. The federal courthouse at 111 S. Highland Ave. in Jackson is closed to the public until further notice.

The Middle District of Tennessee has postponed civil and criminal jury selections that were scheduled to begin March 17 through March 30. All grand jury proceedings scheduled to take place between March 17 and April 30 are postponed, as are related deadlines.

Tennessee’s state and local courts have suspended all in-person proceedings from the close of business on March 13 through April 30, with certain exceptions including: bond-related matters for criminal defendants, plea agreements for incarcerated people, civil and criminal jury trials that are in progress as of March 13, and proceedings related to relief from abuse, emergency child custody orders, petitions for temporary injunctive relief, emergency mental health orders, emergency protection of elderly or vulnerable people and proceedings related to COVID-19.

Deadlines — including statutes of limitations, orders of protection and temporary injunctions — that are set to expire between March 13 and May 5 are extended through May 6.

Texas
The Northern District of Texas has postponed all civil and criminal bench and jury trials scheduled to begin through May 1 until further notice. The postponement does not include other deadlines besides the trial date. All grand jury proceedings through May 1 are postponed, and all deadlines, including the statute of limitations, are suspended through May 1. Public tours and naturalization ceremonies scheduled through May 1 are canceled and will be rescheduled later.

The Southern District of Texas said Thursday that it is suspending all jury trials until April 1. The federal courthouse in Houston will remain open for other matters, including matters scheduled for hearing in bankruptcy court, the district said.

In the Eastern District Court, attorneys and parties were ordered to communicate if court proceedings could cause someone to come into contact with an individual exposed to or infected with the virus.

The Western District of Texas postponed all civil and criminal bench and jury trials scheduled to begin before May 1. Each presiding judge will reset those dates, and the postponement does not apply to any pending deadlines other than the trial dates. Grand jury matters will proceed normally. Parties are encouraged to participate in nonsentencing proceedings by telephone or video. Other matters such as tours and naturalization ceremonies that were scheduled to take place before May 1 are canceled.

The Western District of Texas postponed scheduled proceedings in all civil and criminal bench and jury trials set to begin before May 1, with the exception of pleas, sentencings, criminal matters before magistrate judges and the issuance of warrants. All deadlines in a scheduling order, besides the trial date, remain in effect unless modified by the assigned judge. Parties are encouraged to participate in nonsentencing proceedings by telephone or video. Other matters such as tours and naturalization ceremonies that were scheduled to take place before May 1 are canceled.

On the state side, the Texas Supreme Court issued guidance Thursday calling on courts to suspend proceedings or schedule them to avoid gatherings of large groups of people until at least April 1, including jury trials and large docket calls. It is encouraging courts to implement remote appearances by phone or video for all proceedings that may occur remotely.

The Harris County Civil District Court, serving the Houston area, has suspended civil jury trials for the rest of March and has suspended criminal jury trials through March 20.

Dallas County has canceled all jury trials through May 8.

Collin County District Courts are rescheduling all nonessential court matters from March 16 to April 1. All in-person hearings and trials will be rescheduled during this time, unless designated as “essential,” a list that includes temporary restraining orders, temporary injunctions and any suits or hearings with jurisdictional deadlines. Attorneys must contact each court regarding each setting. No uncontested matters will be heard. The courts are developing a plan for electronic appearances.

U.S. Virgin Islands
In the District of the Virgin Islands, all civil and criminal jury and bench trials scheduled from March 18 through April 16 are postponed until further notice. Sitting grand juries are not authorized to meet before April 16, and no new grand juries will be empaneled during that time. The 30-day time period for filing an indictment is tolled through April 16. Those who have tested positive for the coronavirus, have symptoms or may have been exposed to the virus are prohibited from visiting the courthouses.

The Supreme Court of the Virgin Islands ordered that all nonessential functions of the judicial branch be suspended until further notice. In the Supreme Court, deadlines in appeals pending as of March 20 are extendedeither by 14 days or to April 27, whichever is longer. Deadlines in original proceedings, such as for mandamus or other writs, are still in effect unless the presiding judge has ordered otherwise. The time to file a notice of appeal or other initiating document is tolled through April 26, and the period from March 23 through April 26 is excluded from the 120-day period for the Superior Court to rule on post-judgment motions.

In the Superior Court, all deadlines in cases pending as of March 20 are extended either by 14 days or to April 27, whichever is longer. All previously scheduled depositions may occur as scheduled, and new depositions may be scheduled, but parties are encouraged to agree to postpone depositions if possible.

Utah
In the District of Utah, all civil and criminal jury trials scheduled to begin before May 1 are postponed until further notice. All trial-related deadlines in criminal trials scheduled to begin before May 1 are postponed until further notice, but criminal trials already underway as of March 16 will continue. Judges can postpone trial-related deadlines in civil cases at their discretion. All grand jury proceedings are suspended through May 1.

All currently scheduled hearings in criminal cases are postponed, but the assigned judge in each case may proceed with the hearings remotely.

In the state court system, those with symptoms of COVID-19 and those who may have been exposed to the coronavirus are not allowed to enter any courthouse. The Utah Supreme Court directed state court judges to grant motions for extensions of time liberally. Hearings will be conducted remotely or on the papers, “absent exigent circumstances,” according to the state Supreme Court’s order. District Court and Justice Court judges were directed to suspend all criminal and civil jury trials until after June 1.

Vermont
In the District of Vermont, all civil and criminal matters scheduled for in-person court appearances are postponed until further notice. The court’s order does not affect motions that can be resolved remotely or without oral argument. All grand jury proceedings are postponed until April 23.

In the state court system, all nonemergency superior court hearings, including jury trials, are postponed until at least April 15. The courts will only schedule and hear certain emergency matters. Parties may participate in nonevidentiary proceedings remotely.

Those who have tested positive for the coronavirus, have symptoms or may have been exposed to the virus are prohibited from entering state courthouses.

Virginia
In the Eastern District of Virginia, all civil and criminal proceedings scheduled to occur through March 31 are postponed and will be rescheduled for a later date. The grand jury is not meeting, but the district is permitted to seek documents and testimony for return dates after March 31. All filing deadlines between March 17 and March 31 are extended by two weeks unless otherwise ordered by the presiding judge. The court’s order does not apply to the statute of limitations.

The Eastern District of Virginia has postponed all naturalization ceremonies for the remainder of March and has suspended all noncase-related events, tours and other gatherings in the courthouses.

In the Western District of Virginia, all in-person civil, criminal and bankruptcy proceedings scheduled on or before May 1 are postponed and will be rescheduled at a later date. All civil and criminal jury trials scheduled on or before May 1 are postponed and will be rescheduled. All misdemeanor, traffic and petty offense dockets on or before May 1 are postponed, and all Veterans Treatment Court, Reentry Court and Drug Treatment Court sessions on or before May 1 are canceled. Grand jury proceedings scheduled on or before April 17 are postponed.

In the state court system, the Virginia Supreme Court and Rose Lafoon Building in Richmond are closed to the public until further notice. All filings related to appeals to the Court of Appeals that are filed in a Circuit Court are extended by 21 days, as of March 16. The Court of Appeals will conduct remote arguments at least through June 30.

Washington
In the Western District of Washington, all civil and criminal hearings and trial dates scheduled to occur before June 1 are postponed until further notice. Individual judges may decide to proceed with remote conferences as appropriate. All grand jury proceedings scheduled before June 1 are postponed. All initial criminal appearances and detention hearings will be conducted remotely with the defendant’s permission, unless the court directs otherwise. The bankruptcy court will continue with scheduled nonevidentiary hearings by telephone as posted on www.wawb.uscourts.gov and announced by the individual bankruptcy judge.

In the Eastern District of Washington, all in-court hearings in civil and criminal cases scheduled through April 14 are vacated until further notice, and case-related deadlines are suspended. All grand jury sessions before April 13 are vacated. Magistrate judges can evaluate their essential proceedings on a case-by-case basis. Naturalization ceremonies have been canceled through April 30.

In the state court system, all civil jury trials are suspended until after April 24. Trials already in session may proceed or may be postponed to a later date at the discretion of the judge or by agreement of the parties. All nonemergency civil matters are postponed until after April 24, and emergency matters must be held remotely, if possible. All criminal jury trials are postponed until after April 24. Criminal trials already in session with sworn juries may proceed if public health measures are strictly observed, but may be postponed if the defendant agrees to do so.

Washington, D.C.
All federal civil and criminal jury trials in D.C. federal courts have been put off starting March 17 until at least May 11, while other proceedings are postponed until April 17. Federal trial and bankruptcy courts in D.C. will remain open with limited operations.

The D.C. Superior Court has postponed citation arraignments scheduled for March 17 through April 15 for eight weeks from their originally scheduled date. New jury trials in criminal cases are postponed until at least March 30. The court will hear only emergency matters in the civil, family court, probate and tax divisions and auditor master. In general, all other matters are postponed.

The D.C. Court of Appeals has canceled all oral arguments scheduled through March 31. Filing deadlines on or after March 16 are also being delayed until March 31.

The U.S. Tax Court building is closed until further notice, and various trial sessions through March and April have been canceled.

West Virginia
In the Northern District of West Virginia, those who have tested positive for the coronavirus, have symptoms or may have been exposed to the virus are prohibited from entering any courthouse.

In the Southern District of West Virginia, all civil and criminal jury trials and grand jury proceedings are postponed until further notice. Those who tested positive for the coronavirus, have symptoms or may have been exposed to the virus are prohibited from entering any courthouse.

In the state court system, all proceedings and judicial deadlines through April 10 are stayed, except for certain emergency proceedings. Deadlines set to expire before then, including statutes of limitation, are extended to April 11. Proceedings previously scheduled between March 23 and April 10 are postponed and will be rescheduled by the presiding judge. Emergency proceedings should be conducted remotely when possible

Wisconsin
In the Eastern District of Wisconsin, all civil and criminal jury trials scheduled to begin before May 1 are postponed and will be rescheduled for a later date. All petty offense, reentry court and grand jury proceedings are also postponed. Civil hearings should be conducted remotely. Naturalization ceremonies scheduled before May 1 are canceled. Those who are experiencing COVID-19 symptoms or may have come into contact with the virus are prohibited from visiting any courthouse.

In the Western District of Wisconsin, the Kastenmeier Courthouse in Madison will remain open and proceedings will go on as scheduled. Those who feel ill should stay away from the courthouse.

In the state court system, all civil and criminal jury trials scheduled to begin on or before May 22 are postponed and will be rescheduled by the presiding judges. All in-person proceedings in appellate and Circuit courts, with certain exceptions, are suspended through April 30.

Wyoming
In the District of Wyoming, judges are conducting matters remotely where possible. Those who have tested positive for the coronavirus, have symptoms or may have been exposed to the virus — including those who have recently visited Iran, China, South Korea or a host of European countries — are prohibited from entering the courthouse.

In the state court system, all District and Circuit courts have suspended in-person proceedings, with certain exceptions. The Wyoming Supreme Court ordered that all civil trials in state courts be rescheduled and that the courts make reasonable attempts to reschedule criminal trials. The Wyoming Supreme Court building in Cheyenne is closed to the public. The rules requiring paper copies of documents that can be filed electronically are suspended in the Wyoming Supreme Court.

IMMIGRATION COURTS


The U.S. Department of Justice’s Executive Office for Immigration Review has postponed all immigration court hearings for immigrants who aren’t in detention through May 1, although hearings on the docket for detainees are continuing.

Four courts in Miami, San Francisco, Kentucky and New Jersey were fully closed as of April 1.

Filings intended for Miami’s Krome center and San Francisco’s Montgomery St. court can be submitted to other courts in those cities. Filings for the Elizabeth, New Jersey, court can be sent to the Newark court.

The Louisville, Kentucky, immigration court has been closed since August for reasons unrelated to the virus, but filers can submit to the Memphis, Tennessee, immigration court.

Filings in closed courts may also be submitted by email, EOIR announced on March 31.

These 20 courts are fully open: Adelanto, California; Baltimore; Batavia, New York; Conroe, Texas; Eloy, Arizona, El Paso, Texas, Service Processing Center; Falls Church, Virginia, Immigration Adjudication Center; Fishkill, New York; Florence, Arizona; Fort Worth, Texas; LaSalle, Louisiana; Oakdale, Louisiana; Otay Mesa, California; Otera, New Mexico; Pearsall, Texas; Port Isabel, Texas; Stewart, Georgia; Tacoma, Washington; Ulster, New York; and York, Pennsylvania.

The remainder of immigration courts have been kept partially open, and in some cases reopened, for the limited purpose of accepting filings, and if applicable, holding hearings for detained immigrants.

U.S. PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE


All examiner and examining attorney interviews, Patent Trial and Appeal Board and Trademark Trial and Appeal Board oral hearings and other similar in-person meetings scheduled to take place at USPTO offices on or after March 13 will be conducted remotely by video or telephone until further notice.

INTERNATIONAL COURTS


European Court of Justice & General Court of the European Union

Both the ECJ and the General Court have partially closed their doors. The courts will hear only urgent matters until further notice. All other cases already scheduled until March 27 at the ECJ and April 3 at the General Court will be heard at a later date. The filing deadlines for all cases will not change. The ECJ has also advised staff not to go into the court buildings from March 16 to 27 unless it is necessary for a specific case.

–Additional reporting by Stewart Bishop, Dorothy Atkins, Suzanne Monyak, Matt Chiappardi and Melissa Lipman. Editing by Jill Coffey.