Licensing and Tax Implications of Telemedicine; Will the Regulations Inhibit Telemedicine’s Ability to Thrive?
Posted by kemanuel
My husband and I recently decided to try new insurance. It is always hard to change from what you know, so we were a bit hesitant. But the insurance costs under half of what we were paying, and it seemed that nothing was covered with our old insurance. So we took the leap. The absolute best thing about our new insurance is that we have 24/7 access to a physician for prescriptions. For example, I was ill last week, so at about midnight on Tuesday, I called the 24/7 hotline for anti-nausea medicine. A doctor called me within 30 minutes, listened to my complaints, and I had a prescription to be picked from my local Costco within minutes. Obviously, I waited to pick up my prescription the next day when Costco opened, but you see my point. Technology is amazing and scary. Had I preferred, I could have opted to talk to my tele-doctor through Facetime, but, quite frankly, I doubt he would have enjoyed that image of me sick with vomit in my hair. But if my issue were a rash or a questionable mole, Facetime would have worked.
There I am – last Tuesday – at midnight, talking to my new tele-doctor. I don’t even know his name. Most likely, next time I call the 24/7 hotline I will talk to someone else. I may never speak to my prescribing provider again. Nor would I know if I did.
But it worked. It was efficient. Oh, and did I say “free?” We pay a monthly premium and the cost of the prescription was $9.75, but no cost of a doctor visit. I didn’t have to drive to an office. I spoke to the doctor while laying on bed. This is telehealth.
I found myself wondering why doesn’t every health insurance implement this system of free access to a doctor 24/7, the ability to get a prescription at any time, and at nominal cost?? Medicare and Medicaid recipients would benefit highly from telehealth.
And I wondered so much (and couldn’t sleep) that I decided to research. My Melatonin works less and less as time passes. I guess I am getting resistant.
The tele-doctor that wrote me a prescription for anti-nausea was not a North Carolinian. I know this for a fact because when I said to tele-doctor, “I cannot believe that you work at midnight.” He said, “Oh, it’s only 9:00 here.” Based on his sentence, I deduced that tele-doctor was somewhere on the west coast. (I could be a PI).
How could tele-doctor write me a prescription when I live in North Carolina and he lives in CA, OR, or WA? Does he have to be licensed in NC to prescribe to me? And what about the tax implications on providing a medical service in a different state?
One thing that I need to make clear for my readers is that this blog is made possible by the standoff in our U.S. Congress that failed to pass legislature regarding telemedicine in its 2017-2018 session, the first week of August 2018. The opioid bill (which is what it has been dubbed) was to boost telemedicine by breaking down state law barriers disallowing telemedicine or imposing high taxes on telemedicine, which inhibits its growth. In case you are curious, Massachusetts has been named the worst state in which to perform telemedicine. Apparently, Massachusetts has many laws suppressing the advancement of telemedicine.
According to (hopefully not fake) news, what ultimately sunk this year’s wide-ranging health bill was a philosophical disagreement over the funding of community hospitals, which, apparently is a hot topic to debate between the Senate and the House.
As for the telemedicine elements of the failed bill, word on the street is that it could return in a standalone bill come January. Consult your horoscope or 8-ball for more information.
Telemedicine – How Does It Work Legally?
The World Health Organization’s has defined telemedicine as “The delivery of healthcare services, where distance is a critical factor, by all healthcare professionals using information and communication technologies for the exchange of valid information for diagnosis, treatment and prevention of disease and injuries, research and evaluation, and for the continuing education of healthcare providers, all in the interests of advancing the health of individuals and their communities.”
The type of telemedicine in which I participated is considered “real time telemedicine.” I had a consultation with no delay in communication at a distance.
While real estate tax is relatively simple, other taxes are not. Sales and use taxes, income taxes, and business privilege taxes are complex because of the interstate commerce issues. If my tele-doctor lives in CA and provides taxable services to me in North Carolina, does California or North Carolina benefit from the tax? Is the tax due where the provider lives or the consumer? And, BTW, Dr. Tele-health did not ask my location or state of residence. How will he do his taxes?
One of the pinnacle, legal cases that speaks to jurisdictional issues, such as interstate tax issues, is the Supreme Court case, International Shoe Co. V. Washington (I hated this case in law school). According to International Shoe:
- A state may only impose a tax if it has a substantial nexus to the persons and transactions that would be subject to tax. (Now you see why I hate this case. What is substantial nexus? This case creates a riddle.) Oh, and it gets better.
- The tax must be a fairly apportioned to reduce the prospect of double taxation.
- A state cannot adapt a tax that discriminates against interstate commerce.
- Any tax must be fairly related to services provided by the state. (Can you hear the Charlie Brown teacher reciting this?)
Because we are the United States of America and believe in States remaining sovereign over its own people, unsurprisingly, the tax laws in every state differ – dramatically.
Telemedicine providers need to be cautious of income tax, unrelated business income tax, sales and use tax, sales tax, and use tax and be knowledgable about the state-by-state licensing requirements for telehealth. Most states require that a physician is licensed in the state where their patient is located, which presents a problem for telehealth. Some states have exceptions carved out for telehealth.
Here is the Cliffnotes version:
The telehealth professional will be paid, and income will be reported to the IRS on a 1099. Most states have income tax, but some do not. Alaska, Florida, Nevada, South Dakota, Texas,Washington and Wyoming do not have income tax.
Even more complicated for the telehealth providers, is the question of whether the “source” of the income received by the surgeon is the country or state where the provider is located or the country or state where the patient is located. You can see why this is an important issue to the state, which wants to collect the most income tax possible, and to the physician, who doesn’t want to pull a Martha Stewart.
The current IRS definition of “patient” originated in 1968. The current definition of a “patient” contemplates a bricks-and-mortar structure at which patients receive treatment. Even though the IRS’ definition of “patient” is prehistoric, there have been several subsequent private letter rulings (PLRs) permitting the term “patient” to extend to recipients of services conducted by providers, even though performed at a variety of locations.
Unrelated Business Income (UBI)
The IRS defines UBI as income from a trade or business that is regularly carried on by a tax-exempt organization and that is not substantially related to the organization’s exempt purpose.
To date, the IRS has not issued any guidance or rulings regarding telemedicine UBI, specifically. For now, tax-exempt healthcare organizations participating in telemedicine are subject to the IRS rules and principles that apply more broadly to UBI and healthcare activities – some of which, frankly, don’t neatly fit, and some of which require careful documentation to avoid triggering UBI status.
One problem with UBI (like income tax) is the IRS’ definition of “patient.” The IRS’ definition does not contemplate telemedicine because the setting is not traditional.
In PLR 8122013, a tax-exempt hospital was not liable for UBI tax on its provision of laboratory services to patients of private physicians because such services contributed importantly to meeting the health needs of the community. In discussing Rev. Rul. 68-376, the IRS noted: “[I]t is important that the Service take cognizance of the changes in health care delivery brought about by modern technology. For example, the technology is now in place for a hospital to monitor the results of an electrocardiogram attached to a patient who is 80 miles away. The point is that who is legitimately considered a patient of a hospital today is not necessarily the same as 12 years ago, when the cited revenue ruling was published.” This shows, at the very least, that the IRS understands the definition of “patient” needs to be updated, even if no steps are taken to do so.
Sales and Use Tax
Sales and use taxes are typically imposed upon tangible personal property. Medical services provided in a traditional face-to-face setting would not trigger any sales and use tax issues. However, many states have adopted legislation that defines some intangible items to be treated like tangible personal property. For example, the data transmission component of telemedicine services could be subject to sales and use tax, which would mean that my “free” telehealth consult could have a tax implication of which I was unaware.
If a provider renders health care services to someone in a foreign state, that provider may be liable to collect sales tax. Quite recently, I noticed this issue, not with telehealth, but with the internet sales of durable medical equipment. Providers who sell equipment, prescriptions, or vitamins over the internet need to be mindful of cross-state, sales tax.
The potential sales tax arises from the data transmission component of telemedicine. For example, in New Jersey, the sales tax expressly exempts services of of a physician. Juxtapose Connecticut, which has an administrative ruling that the provision of medical records through an online service is a taxable service.
This issue – cross-state licensing issues – really deserves a blog of its own. I will discuss this issue with the author of this blog. Much like an attorney, physicians and other health care providers have to be licensed in the state in which they practice.Most states require that a physician is licensed in the state where their patient is located. Telehealth challenges states’ borders. Some states have attempted to solve this problem by creating a limited telemedicine license for which out-of state physicians can apply. However, this solution doesn’t exist in all states.
The Federation of State Medical Boards (FSMB), is a non-profit representing more than 70 medical and osteopathic boards. It also has about 17 states as members. FSMB is a proponent of allowing physicians to practice beyond state lines.
Partly due to the efforts of FSMB, approximately nineteen states have passed legislation to adopt the Interstate Medical Licensure Compact, which allows physicians to obtain a license to practice medicine in any Compact state through a simplified application process. The state medical boards retain their licensing and disciplinary authority, but agree to share information for licensing purposes.
The state boards of medicine recognize that standard of care is also largely a state-by-state analysis, sometimes even a community-by-community expectation. Some states, such as California, passed policy requiring the standard of care in telemedicine services to be the same as if providing the service in person.
All in all, I was happy with my very first telehealth experience. I do recognize, however, that there are legal barriers preventing telehealth and regulatory risks for the health care providers to contemplate before jumping on the telehealth boat. But, as a consumer…I’m hooked!
Posted in Access to Care, Associations, Federal Law, Final Rulings, Health Care Providers and Services, Knicole Emanuel, Legal Analysis, Legal Remedies for Medicaid Providers, Legislation, Medicaid, Medicaid Appeals, Medicaid Attorney, Medicaid Costs, Medicaid Providers, Medicaid Services, Medicare, Medicare Attorney, Physicians, Tax Dollars, Taxes, Taxpayers
Tags: Cross State Licensing, Health care, health care providers, IRS, Knicole Emanuel, Medicaid, Medicaid Attorney; Medicaid Lawyer; Medicare Attorney Medicare Lawyer, Medicaid Fraud, Medicaid telehealth, Medicare, Medicare Fraud, Medicare telehealth, Opioid Bill, Potomac Law, Potomac Law Group, Telehealth, Telemedicine, Telemedicine and Licensing Issues, Telemedicine and Tax Implications, Telemedicine Providers, Unrelated Business Income, World Health Organization