Medicare and Medicaid Appeal Deadlines and Procedures: Laws that EVERY Health Care Provider Should Know
If you are a physician, most likely, you are not a lawyer. And vice versa. While there are exceptions, generally, the professions of physicians and attorneys are mutually exclusive. Personally, one reason I went to law school is because I am awful at math. However, presumably, I would be able to write a killer essay on early Shakespearean comedies, much unlike my primary care physician.
That said, there are things that every physician who accepts Medicare or Medicaid should know: (1) appeal deadlines; and (2) appeal procedures.
Ignoring either appeal deadlines or procedures does not make them go away.
They exist. And if you fail to appeal an adverse decision within the required timeframe, you will be barred from appeal. Knowing the appeal deadline is imperative!
Putting off hiring legal counsel can lead to missing an appeal deadline.
A client came to me a year or so ago. We will call him Artagnan, or Art, for short. Art had received a Tentative Notice of Overpayment (TNO) alleging that Art owed the Department of Health and Human Service (DHHS) $1,780,534.15. Art hired Attorney Richie. Richie properly appealed the TNO to a reconsideration review and got the amount decreased by approximately $500.
Per NC statute, you have 60 days to appeal a reconsideration review decision to the Office of Administrative Hearings (OAH). Art asked Richie to appeal the reconsideration review and paid Richie additional money for the appeal.
Art came to me for a consultation over 90 days after the reconsideration review decision, and we found that no appeal had been filed. Obviously, Art was upset.
I offered to file a motion throwing ourselves on the mercy of the court, asking for an exception due to the former attorney’s failure to appeal and Art’s reliance on Richie to appeal. I warned Art that this was a longshot and, most likely, we would lose.
And we did.
The Judge determined (accurately, in my opinion) that OAH has no jurisdiction over the matter once the 60 days has lapsed.
Moral of the story: Know the appeal deadlines. Abide by the appeal deadlines.
Appeal deadlines (in NC) (these are the general rules and exceptions exist, so go to a lawyer for advice as to your particular situation):
For a Medicaid reconsideration review – 15 days
For a Medicaid petition to OAH – 60 days
For a Medicare redetermination – 120 days
For a Medicare reconsideration – 180 days
For a Medicare ALJ Hearing – 60 days
Procedures to appeal
There are different avenues to follow for appeals depending on the adverse decision that you are appealing.
For example, for a Medicare payment dispute, there are 5 levels of appeal.
The levels are:
- First Level of Appeal: Redetermination by a Medicare carrier, fiscal intermediary (FI), or Medicare Administrative Contractor (MAC).
- Second Level of Appeal: Reconsideration by a Qualified Independent Contractor (QIC)
- Third Level of Appeal: Hearing by an Administrative Law Judge (ALJ) in the Office of Medicare Hearings and Appeals
- Fourth Level of Appeal: Review by the Medicare Appeals Council
- Fifth Level of Appeal: Judicial Review in Federal District Court
For a Medicaid payment dispute, there are only, generally, 3 levels of appeal.
The levels are:
- Reconsideration review
- Petition for Contested Case at OAH
- Judicial Review at Superior Court
It is imperative that you and your lawyer follow each step without attempting to jump a level. There is a legal requirement to “exhaust your administrative remedies” prior to going to court. For example, if a Medicaid provider filed a lawsuit in Superior Court because of a TNO without first going through the reconsideration review and OAH, the Superior Court judge will dismiss the claim for failing to exhaust your administrative remedies.
Therefore, any health care provider who accepts Medicare and/or Medicaid needs to be highly aware of appeal deadlines and appeal procedures. Allowing too much time to pass before hiring your attorney and filing an appeal can result in a loss of appeal rights.